BulkTransmission/Invasive, Nonnative Species
Transmission Invasive, Nonnative Species
Invasive, Nonnative Species
Present, Potentially Affected
- Antelope Valley Neset (AVS - Neset 345 kV Transmission Line Project)
- BLM-NV-WN-ES-08-01-1310, NV-020-08-01 (Blue Mountain Geothermal Well Field and Power Plant EA)
- CA-96062042 (Fourmile Hill Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) / Environmental Impact Report (EIR) for Geothermal/Power Plant, Geothermal/Well Field, Geothermal/Transmission)
- Cameron to Milford-138kV Transmission Line (Cameron to Milford - 138kV Transmission Line Project)
- DOE-EA-1621 (Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) Deep Geothermal Well and Power Plant Project EA at Klamath Falls Geothermal Area for Geothermal/Power Plant)
- DOE-EA-1733 (Calpine Enhanced Geothermal Systems Project EA at Geysers Geothermal Area for Geothermal/Well Field)
- DOE-EA-1849 (EA for Northern Nevada Geothermal Power Plant Project at McGuinness Hills Geothermal Area)
- DOI-BLM-CA-017-05-051 (Basalt Canyon Geothermal Pipeline Project Environmental Assessment and Draft Environmental Impact Report for Geothermal/Well Field)
- DOI-BLM-CA-ES-2013-002+1793-EIS (Casa Diablo IV Geothermal Development Project EIS at Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area for Geothermal/Power Plant)
- DOI-BLM-ID-220-2009-EA-3709 (Raft River Geothermal Drilling Project EA for Geothermal/Exploration)
- DOI-BLM-NV-063-EA08-091 (Jersey Valley and Buffalo Valley Geothermal Development Projects EA for Geothermal/Power Plant)
- DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2010-0006-EA (Gabbs Valley and Dead Horse Wells Geothermal Exploration Projects EA for Geothermal/Exploration)
- DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2010-0008-EA (EA at Soda Lake Geothermal Area for Geothermal/Exploration Drilling and Well Testing)
- DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2010-0010-EA (EA at Coyote Canyon and Dixie Meadows for Geothermal/Exploration Drilling and Well Testing)
- DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2010-0016-EA (EA for Airborne Electromagnetic Survey at Patua Geothermal Project for Geothermal/Well Field, Geothermal/Power Plant)
- DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2011-0001-EA (Coyote Canyon Utilization Project EA for TGP for Geothermal/Power Plant)
- DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2011-0501-EA (EA for Development Drilling and Well Testing at Patua Geothermal Project Phase II for Geothermal/Well Field)
- DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2011-0516-EA (EA for Thermal Gradient Holes at Dixie Meadows Geothermal Exploration Project for Geothermal/Exploration, Geothermal/Well Field)
- DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2012-0029-EA (Tungsten Mountain Geothermal Exploration Project EA for Geothermal/Well Field Drilling and Well Testing)
- DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2012-0050-EA (Wild Rose Geothermal Project EA for Geothermal/Well Field, Geothermal/Power Plant)
- DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2012-0051-EA (Coyote Canyon South Geothermal Exploration Project EA for Geothermal/Exploration)
- DOI-BLM-NV-CC-ES-11-10-1793 (Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects EIS for Geothermal/Power Plant Development Drilling)
- DOI-BLM-NV-CO10-2011-0501-EA (EA for Phase II Production Wells and Thermal Gradient Holes at Patua Geothermal Project for Geothermal/Well Field)
- DOI-BLM-NV-W010-2010-0004-EA (New York Canyon Geothermal Exploration Project EA for Exploration Drilling and Well Testing)
- DOI-BLM-NV-W010-2011-0001-EA (EA of the Leach Hot Springs Geothermal Exploration Project at Grass Valley Geothermal Area for Geothermal/Exploration, Geothermal/Well Field Drilling and Well Testing)
- DOI-BLM-NV-W010–2012–0005–EA (EA for Development Drilling at New York Canyon Geothermal Utilization and Interconnect Project for Geothermal/Power Plant, Geothermal/Transmission, Geothermal/Well Field)
- DOI-BLM-NV-W030-2010-0006-EA (EA for Drilling and Flow Testing at San Emidio Geothermal Exploration Project for Geothermal/Exploration)
- DOI-BLM-OR-P000-2010-0003-EA (EA for Drilling, Testing and Monitoring of up to 12 Temperature Gradient / Passive Seismic Geothermal Exploratory Wells at Newberry Caldera Geothermal Area for Geothermal/Exploration)
- DOI-BLM-OR-P040-0021-EA (EA for Exploratory Wells at Midnight Point and Mahogany Geothermal Exploration Projects, Glass Buttes, Oregon for Geothermal/Exploration)
- DOI-BLM-OR-V040-2009-0059-EA (Department of Energy Loan Guarantee for U.S. Geothermal's Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Facility in Vale, Oregon for Geothermal/Power Plant)
- DOI-BLM-UT-W020-2010-0042-EA (EA for Thermal Gradient Holes at Drum Mountains and Whirlwind Valley Geothermal Exploration Projects for Geothermal/Exploration, Geothermal/Well Field)
- DOI-BLM-UT-W020-2010-042-EA (EA for Exploration and Development Drilling at Drum Mountain Geothermal Area for Geothermal/Exploration)
- EA for Well Field Development at Patua Geothermal Area - DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2011-00016-EA (EA for Phase II of Patua Geothermal Project for Geothermal/Exploration, Geothermal/Well Field)
- EA-NV-030-07-006 (EA for Exploration Drilling at Carson Lake Corral Geothermal Area for Geothermal/Well Field)
- Eldorado Ivanpah Transmission Project (EIS/EIR for the Eldorado-Ivanapah Transmission Project)
- Energy Gateway South (Environmental Impact Statement and Land Use Plan Amendments for the Energy Gateway South Transmission Project)
- Gateway West Transmission Line (Environmental Impact Statement for the Gateway West Transmission Line Project)
- Mona to Oquirrh Transmission (Mona to Oquirrh Transmission Corridor Project and Proposed Pony Express Resource Management Plan Amendment)
- NV-020-03-26 (Desert Peak 2 Geothermal Project Environmental Assessment for Geothermal/Power Plant)
- NV-020-07-EA-01 (EA for Observation Wells at Jersey Valley Geothermal Exploration Project for Geothermal/Well Field, Geothermal/Exploration)
- NV-063-EA06-098 (Reese River Valley Geothermal Exploration Project Environmental Assessment)
- North Steens 230kV Transmission (North Steens 230-kV Transmission Project EIS)
- One Nevada (Final Environmental Impact Statement for the One Nevada Transmission Line Project (ON Line Project))
- Southline Transmission Line (Environmental Impact Statement for the Southline Transmission Line Project)
- Sun Valley to Morgan Transmission Line (Environmental Impact Statement for the Sun Valley to Morgan Transmission Line Project)
- Sunzia Southwest (SunZia Southwest Transmission Project)
- Tehachapi Renewable Transmission (Environmental Impact Statement for the Tehachapi Renewable Transmission Project)
- Transwest Express (Transwest Express Transmission Project Environmental Impact Statement)
Invasive species reproduce quickly to become widespread and cause harm to other species. They threaten ecosystems by interrupting the food chain as they consume native species and add competition to native sources. Invasive species also carry disease. This threatens biodiversity and changes the ecosystem’s survival mechanisms. Invasive species are mobilized via wood byproducts, boats, cars, people, and pet purchasing. Non-native species include fish, fungus, bacteria, plants, mammals and insects.
Non-native species reside in environments made for species with a different set of adaptations than the ones they have. This makes them potentially harmful to the environment as they may carry disease. These species are undesirable because they usually require specialized care to stay healthy by increasing competition and decreasing biodiversity. Specialized characteristics include a larger water supply, a specialized diet unfit for the area, are toxic to other species and require a warmer or cooler climate.
On The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) managed lands, a management plan is required to mitigate not only the widespread of invasive and non-native species, but also, the toxicity to humans and native species. Weed management must continue three years after reclamation activities have been completed. Other agencies such as the United States Forest Service and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service require similar management plans.
Invasive, Nonnative Species Impacts & Mitigation
Invasive and nonnative species can experience adverse impacts along the transmission corridor and construction sites. Construction activities may spread the invasive and nonnative species seeds and plants as dirt is hauled, resurfaced and traveled on. Wind and harsh conditions may also spread invasive and nonnative species when stored in stockpiles or other excavated material heaps. Improperly identifying these species endangers native species during herbicide practices and plant removal.
The following mitigation measures indicate procedures to decrease invasive and nonnative seed dispersal and plant duplication:
- Prior to construction, evaluate the site for any invasive and non-native species, e.g. weeds. Map affected areas in a Geographic Information System and flag them at their physical location. Identify areas where invasive and nonnative species posed fire hazards. Develop a contingency plan for their removal or current state.
- Power-wash all vehicles entering the site to remove soil and plant particles. Contaminated residue will be disposed off-site.
- All employee clothes and shoes will be inspected and treated accordingly for contaminants.
- Travel on existing roads to decrease spreading noxious weed pollen on tires.
- If herbicides are permitted, consult the BLM for application processes. If they are not permitted, remove plants by hand.
- Protective equipment is required when applying herbicides.
- On state managed lands, ensure herbicide labels comply with state regulations. On federally managed lands, develop an herbicide plan to include application locations, target species, herbicide chemical makeup, adjuvants, and application methods.
- Herbicide application is typically conducted using a broadcast applicator mounted on a truck or all-terrain vehicle, a backpack sprayer, or a hand sprayer. Only licensed operators can perform this task.
- If invasive or nonnative species are isolated, avoid spraying (from a truck, hand held device, and aerial methodology) special status species and native species.
- Avoid herbicide applications during flowering season when pollination occurs to eliminate additional herbicide treatment. Also avoid spraying in areas adjacent to bodies of water (storm drains, irrigation ditches, streams, lakes, rivers, or wells) to eliminate cross contamination.
- During storage, separate topsoil and subsoil layers. Cover with plastic for the project duration to mitigate pollen contaminates from entering the soil.
- Return subsoil and topsoil to their original state by regrading and using weed-free soil and seed mix for revegetation.