Geothermal/Power Plant

From Open Energy Information




Geothermal Power Plants

[edit]
Binary power system equipment and cooling towers at the ORMAT Ormesa Geothermal Power Complex in Southern California.
This is the Krafla Geothermal Power Station in Iceland.


Geothermal Power Plants discussion


Electricity Generation

Converting the energy from a geothermal resource into electricity is achieved by producing steam from the heat underground to spin a turbine which is connected to a generator to produce electricity. The type of energy conversion technology that is used depends on whether the resource is predominantly water or steam, the temperature of the resource, and the chemical composition of the fluid.

The 3 conventional methods that are used are Dry Steam, Flash Steam, and Binary Cycle power plants.

Steam from hydrothermal reservoirs is withdrawn from below the Earth's surface via a production well and goes directly to a turbine; the turbine drives a generator that produces electricity. This is the oldest type of geothermal power plant, and in use at the largest single source of geothermal power: The Geysers (in northern California)[1].
Flash steam power plants are the most common type geothermal power plants. They generally require the use of hydrothermal fluids above in the range of 300 - 700°F[2]. The fluid is vaporized, and the vapor drives the turbine, which then drives the generator[1]."
Both moderate-temperature (below 400°F) water and a secondary, or "binary", fluid with a much lower boiling point than water are used in binary-cycle power plants. The secondary fluid vaporizes (caused by the heat from the geothermal fluid), which drives the turbine, which drives the generator. Since moderate-temperature water is the more common geothermal resource, and this technology is expected to be used in many geothermal plants in the future[1].


Cooling Technologies

In closed loop steam systems steam is condensed and cooled prior to re-injection. In the Binary cycle the heat gained in the working fluid must be rejected in order to make continuous power. The 3 typical methods of heat rejection that are used are:

Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process.
Air cooling is commonly defined as rejecting heat from an object by flowing air over the surface of the object, through means of convection. Air cooling requires that the air must be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the heat sink) to a cold reservoir (the air).
An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate.


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Number of geothermal plants listed: 252

 
Owner

Facility
Type

Capacity
(MW)

Commercial
Online
Date

Geothermal
Area

Geothermal
Region
Ahuachapan Geothermal Power PlantLaGeo SA de CVSingle Flash; Double Flash1975Ahuachapan Geothermal AreaCentral American Volcanic Arc Chain
Ahuachapan No. 2LaGeoSingle Flash1976Ahuachapan Geothermal AreaCentral American Volcanic Arc Chain
Ahuachapan No. 3LaGeoDouble Flash1981Ahuachapan Geothermal AreaCentral American Volcanic Arc Chain
Aidlin Geothermal FacilityCalpineGeothermal Steam Power Plant20 MW
20,000 kW
20,000,000 W
20,000,000,000 mW
0.02 GW
2.0e-5 TW
1989Geysers Geothermal AreaHolocene Magmatic
Altheim Geothermal Power PlantBinary Cycle Power Plant, ORC1994Altheim Geothermal AreaUpper Austrian Molasse Basin
Aluto-Langano Geotermal Power PlantEthiopian Electric Power CorporationBinary Cycle Power Plant, ORC7.3 MW
7,300 kW
7,300,000 W
7,300,000,000 mW
0.0073 GW
7.3e-6 TW
1999Aluto-Langano Geothermal AreaEast African Rift System - Ethiopian Rift Valley
Amatitlan Geothermal Power PlantEmpresa de Generacion de Energia Electrica del INDEBack Pressure Steam, Binary20 MW
20,000 kW
20,000,000 W
20,000,000,000 mW
0.02 GW
2.0e-5 TW
2007Amatitlan Geothermal AreaCentral American Volcanic Arc Chain
Amedee Geothermal FacilityAmedee Geothermal VentureBinary1.6 MW
1,600 kW
1,600,000 W
1,600,000,000 mW
0.0016 GW
1.6e-6 TW
1988Amedee Geothermal AreaWalker-Lane Transition Zone
BLM Geothermal FacilityCoso Operating Co.Double Flash90 MW
90,000 kW
90,000,000 W
90,000,000,000 mW
0.09 GW
9.0e-5 TW
1989Coso Geothermal AreaWalker-Lane Transition Zone
Bacman 1 GEPPEnergy Development CorporationSingle Flash110 MW
110,000 kW
110,000,000 W
110,000,000,000 mW
0.11 GW
1.1e-4 TW
1993Bac-Man Laguna Geothermal AreaPhilippine Island Arc
Bacman 2 GEPPEnergy Development CorporationSingle Flash40 MW
40,000 kW
40,000,000 W
40,000,000,000 mW
0.04 GW
4.0e-5 TW
1993Bac-Man Laguna Geothermal AreaPhilippine Island Arc
Bacman LowLoad GEPPSingle Flash0 MW
0 kW
0 W
0 mW
0 GW
0 TW
1998Leyte Geothermal AreaPhilippine Island Arc
Bagnore 3 Geothermal Power StationSingle Flash1998Mount Amiata Geothermal AreaItaly Geothermal Region
Bear Canyon Geothermal FacilityCalpineGeothermal Steam Power Plant20 MW
20,000 kW
20,000,000 W
20,000,000,000 mW
0.02 GW
2.0e-5 TW
1988Geysers Geothermal AreaHolocene Magmatic
Bellavista Geothermal Power StationGeothermal Steam Power Plant1987Mount Amiata Geothermal AreaItaly Geothermal Region
Beowawe Geothermal FacilityBeowawe Power LLCDouble Flash16.6 MW
16,600 kW
16,600,000 W
16,600,000,000 mW
0.0166 GW
1.66e-5 TW
1985Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal AreaCentral Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region
Berlín Geothermal Power PlantEmpresa Transmisora de El Salvador (ETESAL)Single Flash, Binary1992Berlín Geothermal AreaCentral American Volcanic Arc Chain
Big Geysers Geothermal FacilityCalpineGeothermal Steam Power Plant97 MW
97,000 kW
97,000,000 W
97,000,000,000 mW
0.097 GW
9.7e-5 TW
1980Geysers Geothermal AreaHolocene Magmatic
Birdsville Geothermal Power StationErgon EnergyBinary Cycle Power Plant, ORC1992Birdsville Geothermal AreaAustralia - Great Artesian Basin
Bjarnaflag Geothermal Power PlantReykjavík EnergyBack Pressure Steam1969Bjarnaflag Geothermal AreaMid Atlantic Ridge
Blumau GEPPOrkuveita ReykjavikurBinary Cycle Power Plant0.2 MW
200 kW
200,000 W
200,000,000 mW
2.0e-4 GW
2.0e-7 TW
2001Bad Blumau Geothermal AreaStyrian Basin
Blundell 1 Geothermal FacilityPacificCorp EnergySingle Flash36 MW
36,000 kW
36,000,000 W
36,000,000,000 mW
0.036 GW
3.6e-5 TW
1984Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal AreaNorthern Basin and Range Geothermal Region
Blundell 2 Geothermal FacilityPacificCorpBinary12 MW
12,000 kW
12,000,000 W
12,000,000,000 mW
0.012 GW
1.2e-5 TW
2007Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal AreaNorthern Basin and Range Geothermal Region
Bouillante 1 Geothermal Power PlantCFG Services; Électricité de France Développement EnvironnementDouble Flash1996Bouillante Geothermal AreaLesser Antilles Volcanic Arc
Bouillante 2 Geothermal Power PlantCFG Services; Électricité de France Développement EnvironnementDouble Flash2003Bouillante Geothermal AreaLesser Antilles Volcanic Arc
Brady Hot Springs I Geothermal FacilityOrmatDouble Flash, Binary12 MW
12,000 kW
12,000,000 W
12,000,000,000 mW
0.012 GW
1.2e-5 TW
1992Brady Hot Springs Geothermal AreaNorthwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region
Bruchsal GEPPMunicipality GermanyBinary Cycle Power Plant1 MW
1,000 kW
1,000,000 W
1,000,000,000 mW
0.001 GW
1.0e-6 TW
2009Bruchsal Geothermal AreaUpper Rhine Valley
CE Turbo Geothermal FacilityCalEnergy GenerationSingle Flash10 MW
10,000 kW
10,000,000 W
10,000,000,000 mW
0.01 GW
1.0e-5 TW
2000Salton Sea Geothermal AreaGulf of California Rift Zone
Calistoga Geothermal FacilityCalpineGeothermal Steam Power Plant80 MW
80,000 kW
80,000,000 W
80,000,000,000 mW
0.08 GW
8.0e-5 TW
1984Geysers Geothermal AreaHolocene Magmatic
Carboli 1 Geothermal Power StationGeothermal Steam Power Plant1998Larderello Geothermal AreaItaly Geothermal Region
Carboli 2 Geothermal Power StationGeothermal Steam Power Plant1997Larderello Geothermal AreaItaly Geothermal Region
Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power StationCompania Federal de ElectricidadSingle Flash; Double Flash1973Cerro Prieto Geothermal AreaGulf of California Rift Zone Geothermal Region
Chena Hot Springs Geothermal FacilityChena Hot SpringsBinary0.45 MW
450 kW
450,000 W
450,000,000 mW
4.5e-4 GW
4.5e-7 TW
2006Chena Geothermal AreaAlaska Geothermal Region
Cibuni Geothermal Power PlantPLN2014Pengalengan Geothermal AreaWest Java
Cobb Creek Geothermal FacilityCalpineGeothermal Steam Power Plant110 MW
110,000 kW
110,000,000 W
110,000,000,000 mW
0.11 GW
1.1e-4 TW
1979Geysers Geothermal AreaHolocene Magmatic
Cornia 2 Geothermal Power StationGeothermal Steam Power Plant1994Larderello Geothermal AreaItaly Geothermal Region
Cove Fort Geothermal Power PlantEnel Green PowerBinary2013Roosevelt Hot Springs Road , Milford, UT 84751
Darajat Geothermal Power PlantPLN260 MW
260,000 kW
260,000,000 W
260,000,000,000 mW
0.26 GW
2.6e-4 TW
1994Java - Darajat Geothermal AreaSunda Volcanic Arc
Del Ranch (Hoch) Geothermal FacilityCalEnergy GenerationDouble Flash38 MW
38,000 kW
38,000,000 W
38,000,000,000 mW
0.038 GW
3.8e-5 TW
1989Salton Sea Geothermal AreaGulf of California Rift Zone
Deniz Geothermal Power PlantMARENBinary Cycle Power Plant, ORC24 MW
24,000 kW
24,000,000 W
24,000,000,000 mW
0.024 GW
2.4e-5 TW
2012Germencik Geothermal AreaAegean-West Anatolian Extensional Region
Desert Peak II Geothermal FacilityOrmatBinary11 MW
11,000 kW
11,000,000 W
11,000,000,000 mW
0.011 GW
1.1e-5 TW
2006Desert Peak Geothermal AreaNorthwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region
Dieng Geothermal Power PlantGeodipaSingle Flash60 MW
60,000 kW
60,000,000 W
60,000,000,000 mW
0.06 GW
6.0e-5 TW
1998Java - Dieng Geothermal AreaSunda Volcanic Arc
Dixie Valley Geothermal FacilityTerra-Gen Operating Co.Double Flash67.2 MW
67,200 kW
67,200,000 W
67,200,000,000 mW
0.0672 GW
6.72e-5 TW
1988Dixie Valley Geothermal AreaCentral Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region
Don A. Cambell Geothermal Power PlantOrmatBinary2013Wild Rose Geothermal AreaWalker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region
Dora-1 Geothermal Energy Power PlantMenderes GeothermalBinary Cycle Power Plant, ORC7.9 MW
7,900 kW
7,900,000 W
7,900,000,000 mW
0.0079 GW
7.9e-6 TW
2006Salavatli Geothermal AreaAegean-West Anatolian Extensional Region
Dora-2 Geothermal Power PlantMenderes GeothermalBinary Cycle Power Plant, ORC9.5 MW
9,500 kW
9,500,000 W
9,500,000,000 mW
0.0095 GW
9.5e-6 TW
2010Salavatli Geothermal AreaAegean-West Anatolian Extensional Region
Dora-3 Geothermal Power PlantMenderes GeothermalBinary Cycle Power Plant, ORC17 MW
17,000 kW
17,000,000 W
17,000,000,000 mW
0.017 GW
1.7e-5 TW
2013Salavatli Geothermal AreaAegean-West Anatolian Extensional Region
ENEL Salt Wells Geothermal FacilityEnel North AmericaBinary23.6 MW
23,600 kW
23,600,000 W
23,600,000,000 mW
0.0236 GW
2.36e-5 TW
2009Salt Wells Geothermal AreaNorthwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region
Eagle Rock Geothermal FacilityCalpineGeothermal Steam Power Plant110 MW
110,000 kW
110,000,000 W
110,000,000,000 mW
0.11 GW
1.1e-4 TW
1975Geysers Geothermal AreaHolocene Magmatic
Eburru Geothermal Power PlantKenGenSingle Flash2.4 MW
2,400 kW
2,400,000 W
2,400,000,000 mW
0.0024 GW
2.4e-6 TW
2011Eburru Geothermal AreaEast African Rift System - Kenya Rift
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Geothermal Regulations and Permitting for Power Plants

For information about regulations and permitting related to geothermal power plants, see the Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit.

Document #Analysis
Type
ApplicantLead
Agency
District
Office
Field
Office
Mineral
Manager
Surface
Manager
Techniques
BLM-NV-WN-ES-08-01-1310, NV-020-08-01EANevada Geothermal PowerBLMBLM Winnemucca District OfficeBLM Humboldt River Field OfficeBLMBLMDownhole Techniques
Well Testing Techniques
Drilling Techniques
Development Drilling
CA-96062042EISCalpine CorporationUSFS
DOE-EA-1116EAExergy, Inc.DOEGolden Field OfficeGolden Field Office
DOE-EA-1621EAOregon Institute of TechnologyUnited States Department of EnergyGolden Field OfficeGolden Field Office
DOE-EA-1676EAUS Geothermal IncUnited States Department of Energy
DOE-EA-1849EAOrmat Technologies IncUnited States Department of EnergyGolden Field OfficeBLM
DOE-EIS-0298EISCalEnergy GenerationUnited States Department of Energy
Bonneville Power Admin
BLM
USFS
BLMBLM
DOI-BLM-CA-017-P006-60EISPacific EnergyBLMBLM Central California District OfficeBLM Bishop Field OfficeDevelopment Drilling
DOI-BLM-CA-ES-2013-002+1793-EISEISORNI 50 LLCBLMBLM Central California District OfficeBLM Bishop Field OfficeBLMUnited States Forest Service
DOI-BLM-NV-063-EA08-091EAOrmat Technologies IncBureau of Land ManagementBLM Battle Mountain District OfficeBureau of Land ManagementBureau of Land ManagementProduction Wells
DOI-BLM-NV-B010-2011-0015-EAEAOrmat Technologies IncBureau of Land ManagementBLM Battle Mountain District OfficeBureau of Land ManagementBureau of Land ManagementWell Testing Techniques
Drilling Techniques
Production Wells
DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2010-0016-EAEAVulcan Power CompanyBureau of Land ManagementBLM Carson City District OfficeBLM Stillwater Field OfficeBureau of Land ManagementBureau of Reclamation
Nevada
Airborne Electromagnetic Survey
DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2011-0001-EAEATerra-Gen Power LLCBureau of Land ManagementBLM Carson City District OfficeBLM Stillwater Field OfficeBureau of Land ManagementBureau of Land ManagementWell Testing Techniques
Observation Wells
Exploration Drilling
DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2012--044-DNADNAOrmatt Nevada, IncBLM Nevada State OfficeBLM Carson City District OfficeBLM Stillwater Field OfficeBLM
DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2012-0050-EAEAOrmat Technologies IncBureau of Land ManagementBLM Carson City District OfficeBLM Stillwater Field OfficeBureau of Land ManagementBureau of Land ManagementDrilling Techniques
Development Drilling
DOI-BLM-NV-CC-ES-11-10-1793EISOrmat Technologies Inc, Gradient Resources (formerly Vulcan Power), Sierra Pacific Power Co,BLMBLM Carson City District OfficeBLM Stillwater Field OfficeBLMBureau of Land Management
Bureau of Reclamation
Development Drilling
DOI-BLM-NV-W010–2012–0005–EAEATerra-Gen Power LLCBLMBLM Winnemucca District OfficeBLM Humboldt River Field OfficeBLMBLMDownhole Techniques
Development Drilling
DOI-BLM-OR-V040-2009-0059-EAEAUS Geothermal IncUnited States Department of EnergyBLMBLM
DOI-BLM-UT-C010-2010-0042-EAEAENEL Green Power North AmericaBureau of Land ManagementBLM Color Country District OfficeBLMBLM
United States Forest Service
NEPA Process for Geothermal Power Plants in the Deschutes National ForestEISCal EnergyUSFS
BLM
Exploration Drilling
Exploratory Boreholes
Production Wells
Thermal Gradient Holes
NV-020-03-26EAORNI 3, LLCBLMBLM Winnemucca District OfficeBLMBLM
San Emido Geothermal Energy North ProjectEAUSG Nevada LLCBLMBLM Winnemucca District OfficeBLMBLMProduction Wells


References

<references> [1] [2]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3  "US DOE EERE Geothermal Technologies Program, Hydrothermal Power Systems"
  2. 2.0 2.1  "Geothermal Education Office website"