2-M Probe Survey
Exploration Technique: 2-M Probe Survey
|Exploration Technique Information|
|Exploration Group:||Field Techniques|
|Exploration Sub Group:||Data Collection and Mapping|
|Parent Exploration Technique:||Data Collection and Mapping|
|Information Provided by Technique|
|Thermal:||Identify and delineate shallow thermal anomalies|
|Low-End Estimate (USD):|| 200.00|
20,000 centUSD/ station
|Median Estimate (USD):|| 300.00|
30,000 centUSD/ station
|High-End Estimate (USD):|| 500.00|
50,000 centUSD/ station
|Low-End Estimate:|| 1.50 hours|
1.711157e-4 years/ job
|Median Estimate:|| 2 hours|
2.281542e-4 years/ job
|High-End Estimate:|| 3 hours|
3.422313e-4 years/ job
- "The use of shallow temperature measurements has allowed for detection of deeper geothermal aquifers in many documented cases since the early 1980s. Also, these shallow measurements have successfully detected blind systems in the Great Basin without any surface manifestations. Collecting shallow temperatures between 1-2m is much lower in cost than drilling a temperature gradient well and much easier to complete because of fewer regulations. [[File:Probe-Survey_ATV.jpg|thumb|500px|center|2 m temperature probe survey being conducted via ATV. Photo featured on the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy website.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000001-QINU`"'" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.
- The given value was not understood.
- "A modified version of the 2 m temperature probe survey was tested at the Salt Wells Geothermal Area in 2005.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000002-QINU`"' This technique was used to measure temperatures at relatively shallow depths of 30 cm, adapted for sites where the water table is at or near the land surface. The 30-cm probe survey technique uses a 1/8 inch diameter, 30-cm-long digital K-type thermocouple and probe to measure shallow temperatures at each sample point. Temperature measurements are taken by inserting the probe into the ground by hand, and require minimal equilibration times of 1-2 minutes owing to the small thermal mass of the device and the level of water saturation of the measured sediments. Temperature surveys at Salt Wells were conducted during the winter in February 2005, when background temperatures at 30 cm depth were near a seasonal minimum of 3 to 10°C. A continuous temperature test is also required for the application of this technique, in order to demonstrate the stability of temperatures at 30 cm depth and to provide a baseline dataset for distinguishing thermal anomalies from background temperature variations. At Salt Wells, the continuous 24 hour temperature test was conducted using a 3-wire Platinum Resistance Temperature Device (Pt-RTD) in February 2006, and showed that temperatures only varied by +/- 0.1°C during the day. From this data, it was determined that a temperature threshold of 12°C was sufficient to distinguish thermal anomalies from background temperatures at the site.
Christopher Kratt,Mark F. Coolbaugh,Bill Peppin,Chris Sladek. 2009. Identification of a New Blind Geothermal System with Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Shallow Temperature Measurements at Columbus Salt Marsh, Esmeralda County, Nevada. In: Transactions. GRC Annual Meeting; 2009/10/04; Reno, NV. Davis, CA: Geothermal Resources Council; p. 481–485
Chris Sladek,Mark F. Coolbaugh,Christopher Kratt. 2009. Improvements in Shallow (Two-Meter) Temperature Measurements and Data Interpretation. In: Transactions. GRC Annual Meeting; 2009/10/04; Reno, NV. Davis, CA: Geothermal Resources Council; p. 535–541
Justin Skord,Patricia H. Cashman,Mark Coolbaugh,Nicholas Hinz. 2011. Mapping Hydrothermal Upwelling and Outflow Zones: Preliminary Results from Two-Meter Temperature Data and Geologic Analysis at Lee Allen Springs and Salt Wells Basin. In: Transactions. GRC Annual Meeting; 2011/10/23; San Diego, CA. Davis, CA: Geothermal Resources Council; p.
- Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy: Facilities Overview
- Mark F. Coolbaugh,Chris Sladek,Chris Kratt,Lisa Shevenell. 2006. Surface Indicators of Geothermal Activity at Salt Wells, Nevada, USA, Including Warm Ground, Borate Deposits, and Siliceous Alteration. In: Transactions. GRC Annual Meeting; 2006/09/10; San Diego, California. Davis, CA: Geothermal Resources Council; p. 399-405