Vertical Seismic Profiling
Exploration Technique: Vertical Seismic Profiling
|Exploration Technique Information|
|Exploration Group:||Downhole Techniques|
|Exploration Sub Group:||Borehole Seismic Techniques|
|Parent Exploration Technique:||Borehole Seismic Techniques|
|Information Provided by Technique|
|Lithology:||Rock unit density influences elastic wave velocities.|
|Stratigraphic/Structural:||Structural geology- faults, folds, grabens, horst blocks, sedimentary layering, discontinuities, etc.|
|Hydrological:||Combining compressional and shear wave results can indicate the presence of fluid saturation in the formation.|
|Thermal:||High temperatures and pressure impact the compressional and shear wave velocities.|
|Low-End Estimate (USD):|| 60.98|
6,098 centUSD/ foot
|Median Estimate (USD):|| 76.22|
7,622 centUSD/ foot
|High-End Estimate (USD):|| 106.71|
10,671 centUSD/ foot
|Low-End Estimate:|| 1 days|
0.00274 years/ job
|Median Estimate:|| 2 days|
0.00548 years/ job
|High-End Estimate:|| 3 days|
0.00821 years/ job
|Cost/Time Dependency:||Energy Source Needed, Source and Receiver spacing, Terrain, Size|
- "VSP can be applied to geothermal exploration through the calibration and refinement of surface seismic methods in order to better constrain the subsurface model. VSP assists in providing calibration parameters such as identification of seismic reflectors, defining reflector dip, adjusting reflection coefficients, and improved knowledge of appropriate seismic data processing inputs such as deconvolution operators and amplitude decay functions.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000000-QINU`"'<br><br> Also, VSP has been applied to geothermal wells to determine fracture content, fracture orientation and fracture spacing in a geothermal well.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000001-QINU`"'" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.
- The given value was not understood.
Also, VSP has been applied to geothermal wells to determine fracture content, fracture orientation and fracture spacing in a geothermal well.
- Zero-offset VSPs have sources close to the wellbore directly above receivers.
- Offset VSPs have sources some distance from the receivers in the wellbore.
- Walkaway VSPs feature a source that is moved to progressively farther offset and receivers held in a fixed location.
- Walk-above VSPs accommodate the recording geometry of a deviated well, having each receiver in a different lateral position and the source directly above the receiver.
- Salt-proximity VSPs are reflection surveys to help define a salt-sediment interface near a wellbore by using a source on top of a salt dome away from the drilling rig.
- Drill-noise VSPs, also known as seismic-while-drilling (SWD) VSPs, use the noise of the drill bit as the source and receivers laid out along the ground.
- Multi-offset VSPs involve a source some distance from numerous receivers in the wellbore. 3D and 4D VSP surveys have become more common since 1998 when the first long down hole seismic array became available.
3D and 4D VSP surveys have become more common since 1998 when the first long down hole seismic array became available.
- (Hardage, 1985) "Vertical Seismic Profiling"
- (Majer et al., 1988) "Fracture detection using P-wave and S-wave vertical seismic profiling at The Geysers "