Egypt: Energy Resources
|Energy Consumption||3.17 Quadrillion Btu|
|2-letter ISO code||EG|
|3-letter ISO code||EGY|
|Numeric ISO code||818|
|UN Region||Northern Africa|
|Energy Maps||0 view|
|Energy Organizations||1 view|
|Research Institutions||0 view|
|CIA World Factbook, Appendix D|
|Wind Potential||0||Area(km²) Class 3-7 Wind at 50m||104||1990||NREL|
|Coal Reserves||17.64||Million Short Tons||66||2008||EIA|
|Natural Gas Reserves||1,656,000,000,000||Cubic Meters (cu m)||22||2010||CIA World Factbook|
|Oil Reserves||4,300,000,000||Barrels (bbl)||27||2010||CIA World Factbook|
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Policy and Regulatory Overview 
Egyptian electrification rates in 2008 were approximately 99.4% according to the International Energy Agency (IEA); this rate is among the highest of the continent with total urban access to electricity, and a 99% access rate in rural areas. However, approximately 500,000 people still lack access to electricity.Currently, grid connected renewable energy projects in Egypt enjoy the right of access and priority in dispatching.The national grid primarily consists of 500, 400, 220 and 66 kV transmission and distribution lines.
Egypt already has a plethora of wind farms in the Zafarana region along the Red Sea, with a total installed capacity of 430 MW. Meanwhile, a solid plan for an additional 280 MW of installed capacity in this region is under way. Plans for two plants of 120 MW each, and one 200 MW plant, are also being pursued in Zafarana and Gulf El-Zayt with assistance from Germany, Japan, and Spain, respectively. A long-term plan for increasing national wind-farm capacity to 7500 MW by 2020 exists and has been approved by Egypt’s Supreme Council of Energy (SCE).The present energy strategy (the resolution adopted by supreme council on energy in 2007) aims at increasing the share of renewable energy to 20% of the energy mix by 2020. This target is expected to be met largely by scaling-up of wind power, as solar is still very costly and the hydro potential is largely utilized. The share of wind power is expected to reach 12%, while the remaining 8% would come from hydro and solar. This translates into a wind power capacity of about 7200 MW by 2020. The solar component is at this stage considered to start with 100 MW of concentrated solar power and 1 MW of photovoltaic power.The Government is also proposing establishing a dedicated transmission body for solar energy, the Solar Energy Trader (SET). This body will be responsible for administering the advantages conferred to consumers who, under the National Solar Initiative, qualify for accreditation that 5% of their energy needs are met through solar sources. The SET will be responsible for signing power purchase agreements (PPAs) with contract suppliers, and will be established through financial institutions. Funding for the SET will come from a duty on energy trading. The SET scheme is set to run alongside a feed-in tariff for solar energies to be established by the regulator. The regulator is also responsible for ensuring the transparency of PPAs signed through the SET, licensing solar energy producers and issuing certificates of origin, and ensuring fair access to the system.
Egypt is launching a tender offer for the installation of wind farms on the Gulf of Suez with a capacity of 200 MW. The tender represents the second and third phases of the expansion of Egypt's wind farming plans under a renewable energy programme. The first phase of the initiative was signed last July. The offer involves supplying and installing the wind farms as well as maintenance.
Total installed electricity capacity (2008): 22,583 MWThermal: 85%Hydro-electric: 12%Wind: 3%Total primary energy supply (2009): 72,015 ktoeNatural Gas: 49.7%Oil: 45.3%Biofuels and Waste: 2.1%Hydro-electric: 1.5%Coal/ Peat: 1.2%Geothermal/Solar/wind: 0.1%Electricity demand is increasing at about 7% annually and is expected to continue to grow at this rate for the foreseeable future. Egypt’s peak electricity demand reached 21,330 MW for the fiscal year 2008/2009 (fiscal year June-July). Energy is also essential for Egypt’s economic growth for two primary reasons: it is a direct driver of domestic development, and represents a source of foreign currency associated with fuel exports.With respect to renewable sources, approximately 11.2% of Egypt’s power comes from hydropower facilities. When the Aswan Dam was developed in the 1960s, it met the vast majority of Egypt’s electricity demand. Hydro-electricity still represented 50% of Egypt’s capacity in 1980, but, due to major increases in demand, had fallen to less than 15% in 2006. Hydro capacity has been constant at 2842 MW since 2007/08. The Aswan Dam, was constructed to control the Nile water discharge for irrigation. In 1967, the 2.1 GW High Dam hydropower plant was commissioned, followed by the commissioning of the Aswan 2 power plant in 1985, the commissioning of the Isna hydropower plant in 1993 and that of Naga- Hamadi in 2008. Power generation from gasification of sewage sludge in waste water treatment plants is already being used (for example, the El-Gabal El-Asfer 23 MW plant), with a potential generation of 1,000 MW from agricultural waste.Less than 1% of Egypt’s current energy mix comes from wind, despite an abundance of wind resources, particularly in the Suez Gulf area: Western Egypt (west bank of the Nile), Kharga region, Eastern Egypt (east bank of the Nile) and the Gulf of Aquaba area.
The EEUCPRA mandates include :Ensuring that all activities of electric power generation, transmission, distribution, and sale, are carried out in compliance with the laws and regulations in effect in Egypt, especially those relating to environmental protection.Reviewing plans for electricity consumption, production, transmission and distribution, including the investments necessary, to ensure availability of power. Setting regulations that ensure lawful competition in electricity production and distribution, in the best interests of the consumer. Ensuring that the costs of power production, transmission and distribution to guarantee the interests of all parties involved in these activities.Guaranteeing the realisation of a fair return on electric utilities.Ensuring the quality of the services provided by the utility to consumers.Publishing such information, reports, and recommendations that assist the electricity utility and the consumers to gain awareness of their rights and responsibilities, and of the role played by the EEUCPRA.Investigating consumers' complaints and settlements of any disputes.Issuing licenses for the construction, management, operation, and maintenance of electricity generation, transmission, distribution, and sale.
The power sector market is being liberalised.Wholesale electricity trading is based on a single buyer model, with the Egyptian Electricity Transmission Company procuring electricity from generation companies and selling it to nine distribution companies and direct customers (those connected to the transmission network directly as opposed to via a distribution network). This single buyer market relies on dispatch based on production cost curves of the plants and thus, offers limited space for commercially-based competition for dispatch among the incumbent generation companies. This is intended as an intermediate step towards the establishment of a more liberalised electricity market, which is to begin gradually, with the liberalisation of supply to large industrial consumers.
The government has prepared a National Energy Conservation plan, and has set up an inter-ministerial energy conservation coordination group to oversee the activities of energy consumers and suppliers in promoting more efficient use of energy. Activities are focusing on increasing use of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), improving energy efficiency in street lighting and public buildings, and scaling up Solar Water Heating (SWH). An energy efficiency program for small and medium enterprises is under implementation by the Credit Guarantee Company (CGC). On the supply side, the main effort is on improving the use of fossil fuels through the increased use of combined cycle gas turbine power plants and supercritical technology for steam power plants.IndustryEnergy auditing in industrial and commercial facilities.Auditing training for professionals.Energy Efficiency Improvement & Greenhouse Gas Reduction Project (EEIGGR) loan guarantee mechanism for ESCO establishment.UtilitiesLoss reduction & load shifting in the Unified Power System, including mitigation actions to improve the performance of older generating units.TransportPublic transport efficiency projects to reduce CO2 emissions, including new light rail systems and bus rapid transit systems.Awareness-raising with respect to energy efficient transport use.ResidentialNational Efficient Lighting Initiative (NELI), including encouraging local manufacturing of CFLs.Energy efficiency standards & labelling (refrigerators, air conditioners and washing machines), including the adoption of cost-effective standards, and analysis of EE improvement technologies.Public awareness programme to encourage EE lamp adoption.PublicEnergy management in government buildings, including retrofitting of inefficient systems and development of Governmental Procurement Guidelines.Public lighting efficiency initiative.
Egypt’s dependence on fossil fuels—with its depleting oil resources, controversial estimates for natural gas reserves, and rising electricity demand and energy generation—represents a clear call for action.Current peak demand is estimated to be 21.3 GW. Ageing infrastructure and rising demand have led to intermittent blackouts. The summer of 2010 highlighted these problems, as the country experienced rolling nationwide blackouts. Egyptian electricity consumption is increasing much faster than capacity expansions and the government is planning to invest over USD 100 billion in the power sector over the next decade, while also seeking financing from external sources.
The New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA)The NREA was established in 1986 to undertake research and to develop renewable sources of energy in Egypt on a commercial scale, as well as to implement energy conservation and efficiency programs. Under the direction and leadership of the NREA, there has been considerable research into the feasibility of renewable energy systems in Egypt, most notably related to solar power and wind power systems. In 1996, NREA produced the first wind atlas for the Gulf of Suez, and in 2003 published an update for the atlas, and then a wind atlas for Egypt as a whole in December 2005. The NREA is also involved in the Mediterranean Renewable Energy Program (MEDREP), which aims to provide modern energy services to rural populations, and increase the share of renewables in the energy mix of the member countries.Egypt has been successful in tapping international support for renewable energy projects. The African Development Bank (AfDB) is playing an important role in financing both wind and solar programs. Other direct forign investments, including KfW, EIB, the World Bank and the International Finance Corporation, are equally involved in supporting the required investments. The Clean Technology Fund (CTF) provides support through the AfDB and the World Bank for the development of wind and solar plants and the associated transmission projects. The wind program has been supported by Germany, Denmark, Spain and Japan. Plants under construction and preparation are also being financed by Germany, Japan and Spain, as well as the European Investment Bank.
Electricity marketEgypt’s power sector is dominated by the Egyptian Electricity Holding Company (EEHC, www.egelec.com), a state-owned organisation that comprises sixteen affiliated companies (six production, nine distribution, and the Egyptian Electricity Transmission Company). Growing electricity demand in the late 1990s spurred industry restructuring and limited privatization of the sector.EEHC continues to own over 90% of Egypt’s generating capacity. Transmission and distribution also remain a monopoly under the EEHC umbrella. Generation facilities have been built using the Build, Own, Operate and Transfer (BOOT) model or financed as independent power provider projects.A number of independently-owned new gas generation plants were built under Build, Own, Operate and Transfer (BOOT) - their ownership will be transferred to the state after 20 years. The most important are three natural gas-fired plants, with a total capacity of just over 2,000 MW. These are now owned by PowerTech of Malaysia, and can only sell their electricity to the government-owned transmission network. A limited number of small-scale generating utilities were licensed to operate since the establishment of the electric regulatory agency in 2001; their overall capacity and number of customers are growing gradually, currently around 100 MW of capacity.Liquid fuels and gas marketThe Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation (EGPC) is the state entity charged with managing upstream activities, including the infrastructure, licensing and production of, oil and gas. International and foreign national oil companies play a significant role in Egypt’s upstream sector on a production-sharing basis with the EGPC. The energy sector consists of three holding companies in addition to the EGPC and the Egyptian Mineral Resource Authority (EMRA). These include: the Egyptian Natural Gas Holding Company (EGAS), The Egyptian Petrochemicals Holding Company (ECHEM), and Ganoub El Wadi Petroleum Holding Company (GANOPE).
Degree of independence
The Minister of Electricity and Energy is also Chairman of the Board of Directors of EEUCPRA, with the other nine members of the Board appointed by the Prime Minister and selected to represent the various stakeholders in the industry. Funding is allocated via the state budget, although this is currently not used, in favour of operational revenues derived from licensing and services to electricity utilities.
Egypt is a member of the international cooperative organization SolarPACES (http://www.solarpaces.org) established under the umbrella of the IEA. The SolarPACES focuses on the development and marketing of concentrating solar power systems (also known as solar thermal power systems).In 2008, Egypt became host to the EC, Denmark and Germany funded Regional Centre for Renewable Energy and Efficiency for Middle East and North Africa countries (http://www.rcreee.org/).In addition, the Egyptian electricity grid has been connected to those of Libya and Jordan since 1998. In 2009, Egypt started to export electricity to Lebanon through Jordan and Syria. An upgrading of the undersea cable to Jordan is foreseen. There are plans to increase interconnections notably with the creation of the Mediterranean Power Pool, a project that will connect the power grids of Northern Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia) Spain, Middle East Countries (Jordan, Syria, Iraq) and Turkey. In December 2008 the EU-Egypt Memorandum had assigned, among other priorities, the development of energy networks including the electricity network to improve security of supply of both parties, based on EU-Egypt Memorandum of understanding in 2008.
In the early 80s the Egyptian government noted that the traditional energy resources would be inadequate to meet future needs. In 1982, a national strategy for the development of energy conservation measures and renewable energy application was adopted and in 1986 the new and Renewable Energy Authority was established in order to be the focal point for renewable activities in Egypt.The Renewable Energy Strategy of 2008 marked a vital step in this effort, setting a target of reaching 20% of total electrical energy mix from renewable energy (RE), including hydropower by 2020. Taking into account current hydropower capacity, and projections for that hydropower, it is expected that 12% of contribution from renewable energy sources other than hydropower will need to be added by 2020 (i.e., equivalent to installed capacity of 7,200 MW). The Strategy identifies concrete steps, including large pilot implementation of solar projects and electrification of rural areas, development of mini and micro hydropower plants with capacity of less than 100 MW, assessing potential for geothermal and developing 1,000 MW of biomass from agricultural and municipal waste. The Strategy also promotes the local manufacturing of RE equipment, including incentives for activities supporting localization of RE technologies. As part of its efforts to implement the Strategy, EgyptEra coordinates with Egypt’s Industrial Modernization Centre (IMC), which is responsible for direct contact with manufacturers.A proposed feed-in tariff is also to be made available to wind projects, specifically those under 50 MW, in order to promote private-sector participation in the renewable energy sector. The Government hopes that the private sector will contribute roughly 2,500 MW to the country’s renewable energy capacity by 2020.Under Egypt’s five-year plan (2007/2008– 2011/2012), Egypt intends to add 7,750 MW of power generation capacity to meet the expected average annual demand growth rate of 6.38%. For the five-year plan (2012/2013– 2016/2017), an additional 11,100 MW will be needed to meet the expected average annual demand growth rate. Thus Egypt is looking to a portfolio of resources to increase supply, including rapid addition of thermal plants, most of which are combined cycle gas. In January 2010, the Egyptian government announced that it was considering constructing five independent power projects, with a total capacity of 3,500 MW. Recently built combined cycle plants include Cairo North (1,500 MW), Nubaria (1,500 MW), Talka (750 MW) and El-Kureimart (750 MW).The Egyptian National Plan (2012-2017) includes the implementation of:100 MW concentrated solar power plant, in South Egypt.20 MW photovoltaic grid connected plants, 4 MW every year.The next Egyptian National Plan (2018-2022) has set a target of 23% renewable energy sources by 2022. It will be split into:Installation of 2.550 MW of concentrated solar power.Installation of 500 MW photovoltaic (PV) arrays.Installation of 1.2 million m2 of Solar Water Heaters (SWH).
Egypt has traditionally been a net exporter of energy. Oil was exported until the late 1990s, when production had declined from its peak to roughly match local consumption. The discovery and exploitation of large reserves of natural gas meant Egypt became a significant exporter of gas, both by pipeline and as liquefied natural gas (LNG).Egypt now buys a large proportion of its foreign partners' share in crude oil, to meet increasing local consumption. The proportion of oil products in total imports increased from 3% in 1990 to 8% in 2004, reflecting a continuous increasing trend.
Role of the government
Ministry of Electricity and EnergyThe energy sector in Egypt is managed through two different ministries, the Ministry of Electricity and Energy (MOEE) and the Ministry of Petroleum (MOP). Among the major activities of the former is to settle the General Plan of the Energy Generation, Transmission and Distribution and to supervise the study and execution of essential electrical projects. In addition, they suggest the electric energy prices for all the various voltage levels and customers.The power sector in Egypt is represented mainly by MOEE, and is operated by seven executing authorities, namely:The Egyptian Electricity Holding Company (EEHC),The Rural Electrification Authority (REA),The Hydro Power Plants Authority (HPPA),The Atomic Energy Authority (AEA),The Nuclear Power Plants Authority (NPPA),The Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA)The New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA).
In sum, there are four avenues by which renewable energy (RE) is now incentivized in Egypt, these are reviewed below;Plants Built through Competitive Bidding: Under this approach, the grid operator will issue tenders requesting power supply from RE sources. This is directed at large size installations, such as a 250 MW wind farm. These tenders will be designed to: control the increase in RE capacity such that it matches the capacity of the transmission system and the capacity of the market to absorb the new RE; increase local manufacturing; increase private investment; drive down cost; and provide the investors with guarantees through long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs). The goal is to reach 2,500 MW in capacity through long-terms PPAs, in blocks of 250 MW, targeting large international developers with strong financial status and high capacity for technology transfer. Evaluation criteria will include additional points for a high share of locally manufactured components. EgyptEra’s role with respect to the competitive bidding process is to review power purchase agreements, issue licenses, help the investment review process, and auditing. Feed-in Tariffs for Smaller RE Projects: Feed-in tariffs will be introduced for smaller capacities (less than 50 MW installations), again with a goal of reaching 2,500 MW capacity, and will work in parallel with the competitive bidding process. The tariffs are to be set for 15 years, and development of the tariff design and PPA contract is underway. As with the competitive bidding process, EgyptEra’s role is to review power purchase agreements, issue licenses, help the investment review process and audit projects.The Solar Initiative. Recognizing the natural resource potential, the Egyptian government has identified the growth of solar energy as a priority. Solar energy can benefit from the recently adopted European directive (2009/28/EC), which enables European countries to build renewable plants in a third country, providing that electricity will be physically exported to Europe. There are currently two regional solar initiatives that Egypt will be able to participate in, the Mediterranean Solar Plan and Desertec, though both are inhibited by existing transmission capacity limitations. To accelerate the establishment of solar power implementation and mitigate the lack in transmission capacity in the short and medium terms, Egypt may need to consider alternative methods. One such option would be to export the natural gas quantity equivalent to the electricity generated from RE sources, while using the actual generated electricity from RE domestically. Under the solar initiative, a registered and internationally recognized logo will be issued by the regulator which accredits solar energy consumers, offering holders better financing terms, export advantages and potential tax credits. Interested consumers will voluntarily commit themselves to consume up to 5% of their electricity from solar energy. A Solar Energy Trader, or “SET,” will be established to consolidate the committed inquiries and contract suppliers through long-term PPAs to satisfy these demands. SET will be owned and operated by a financial institution(s); committed consumers can have shares in SET, while suppliers cannot. Transactions will be conducted according to a feed-in tariff which will be a pass through cost to consumers.EgyptEra is expected to play a prominent role:Issuing the solar energy logo/certification.Developing a committed consumer register.Setting up mechanisms to guarantee consumer payments through electricity supply contracts and transactions between SET and distribution or transmission networks operators.Licensing SET and monitoring its operation to ensure transparency, free competition and non-discrimination.Issuing the solar feed-in tariff, approving the PPAs and ensuring their transparency.Licensing the solar energy producers; issuing certificates of origin.Ensuring third party access and priority of dispatching.Ensuring exemption from transmission or distribution fees as well as energy banking as a requirement for Public Social Obligation (PSO) of network operators.Conducting dispute resolution.Hosting a steering committee of representatives of the stakeholders (the committee would promote the initiative among different business communities and refine the initiative as well as follow up its progress ). Projects Led by the New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA). Established in 1986, NREA is both a national agency for developing and planning the technology transfer and a developer that must seek and receive a license from the regulator in order to operate its new facilities. Construction is being completed on an integrated solar combined cycle power plant with 9,150 total MW (30 MW solar) at Kureimat. A $327.5 million financing capacity from the World Bank, using the Global Environmental facility, offsets the cost differential between solar and thermal resources; with added support from the Japanese Bank of International Cooperation and the National Bank of Egypt. In February 2010, NREA signed an agreement with Masdar to build a 200 MW wind farm in the east.The draft Electricity Law also envisions a Renewable Energy Fund, derived from the state public budget, endowments, donations, grants and investments, which will provide support to purchase electricity from plants using renewable energy. The Fund would cover: full or partial deficit between the RE cost and market prices; exchange rate risk; guarantee of transmission company payments; financial support to pilot projects; and research and development of renewable energy technologies locally. The Fund would be financed by the state budget, some amount of the subsidies that currently go to existing energy industry, donations and, ultimately, the investment of Fund money.
Egypt faces considerable challenges in bringing renewable energy (RE) sources to market and is tackling many of these issues through advances to its regulatory framework, which is supported by various market actors, including the regulator. These challenges include:At present, Egypt has some of the lowest retail prices for fossil fuel electricity in the world, making the challenge to make renewable energy cost-competitive all the greater.Oil and gas are subsidized upstream, with the transmission company, which buys from generators and then redistributes power to distribution companies, buying electricity at a low rate. Given that fossil fuels, absent recognition of societal costs and externalities, remain less expensive than renewable alternatives, these oil and gas subsidies exacerbate the distortions in the market, making renewables uncompetitive.The Ministry of Finance also provides social subsidies, distorting market signals to end users and discouraging conservation.RE projects also tend to have intensive capital costs, often requiring technology and parts not produced in Egypt. Solar, which uses some of the most expensive kinds of technology, is particularly vulnerable to the price differential.Most RE sources have low power intensity, presenting problems for the power system, which is currently structured with centralized plants, and requires the use of distributed generation.With regard in particular to harnessing wind resources, many high wind speed resources are concentrated in discrete and/or state-owned land areas, requiring attention to land use regulations.
The Electric Utilities and Consumer Protection Regulatory Agency (EEUCPRA, www.egyptera.com) was established by Presidential Decree No. 339/2000 under the supervision of the Minister of Electricity and Energy. The Agency mandate is to regulate and revise the techno-economic feasibility of all electricity generation, transmission, distribution and consumption activities. Its mandate also includes ensuring the availability of supply to different end-users at fair prices. The role of the agency is still limited.
Solar energyDespite undergoing radical advances, solar technology penetration is negligible considering that Egypt receives some of the highest solar radiation in the world and 96% of the country is desert, making it a prime location for a variety of solar energy technologies and applications. Egypt is located within the Sun Belt countries with annual global solar insolation ranging from 1750 to 2680 kWh/m2/year from North to South and annual direct normal solar irradiance ranging from 1970 to 3200 kWh/m2/year from North to South, with relatively steady daily profile and small variations making it very favourable for utilization.Both the Solar Radiation Atlas and the German Aerospace Centre estimate Egypt’s economically viable solar potential in the range of 74 billion MWh/year, or many times Egypt’s current electricity production. The Energy Research Centre at Cairo University’s Faculty of Engineering estimates that 6 MW of solar photovoltaics are currently installed in Egypt. In addition, a 150 MW integrated-solar combined-cycle power plant is under construction in Kureimat, with a solar component of 30 MW.Wind energyThe first phase of the Wind Atlas for Egypt, produced by The New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA) and the Risø National Laboratory (Denmark), was finalized in March 2003 with the publication of the detailed Wind Atlas for the Gulf of Suez. This atlas includes wind data for 13 sites covering the decade from 1991 to 2001. The second phase of the project, the Wind Atlas for Egypt: Measurements and Modelling 1991–2005, was released in 2006, covering Egypt’s entire land area based on a comprehensive eight-year wind-resource assessment. The purpose of the Wind Atlas was to establish a meteorological basis for assessing Egypt’s wind energy resources in six designated regions: the northwest coast, the northeast coast, the Gulf of Aqaba, the Gulf of Suez, the Red Sea, and the western desert. The majority of the assessed areas exist in state-owned lands, making them ideal for development.According to the Wind Atlas, the western part of the Gulf of Suez is home to some of Egypt’s best wind resources. Here, average yearly wind speeds surpass 7 m/s, and there is potential for some 20,000 MW of wind capacity. The Gulf of Suez is the region where both short- and medium-term plans for Egypt’s wind energy developments are focused.As of 2008/2009, Egypt’s New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA), the authority affiliated with the Ministry of Energy that manages Egypt’s clean energy portfolio, has installed 425 MW of wind power, including a wind farm at Zafarana. Zafarana has been operational since 2004 and has a capacity of 360 MW, where wind averages 9 m/s. Egypt has registered Zafarana as a CDM project. Though wind penetration is small at present, Egypt’s experience with wind projects goes back 20 years, with a plant of installed capacity of 405 MW.Various studies indicate that electricity generated from wind resources represents the best opportunity for Egypt’s renewable energy to reach competitive prices with electricity generated from oil and gas.Biomass energyThe biomass resource in Egypt has been estimated at 40 million tons/year, or 3,600 ktoe/year. Small- and large-scale biogas digesters have been proposed for power generation. Approximately 800 small digesters for home use are installed, whilst large-scale digesters are still being implemented. Bagasse and cattle manure have also been mooted as potential biogas feedstocks. The gasification of sewage sludge in waste water is already being used in the 23 MW El-Gabal El-Asfer plant, and agricultural wastes have been identified as having a high potential in the country.Geothermal energyNo electricity generation based on geothermal resources is currently installed; however, thermal use amounts to approximately 1 MW. Several geothermal spas are located across the country, primarily with temperatures in the region of 28-70 ºC.HydropowerIn 2009, renewable energy, mainly hydropower, accounted for 12% of Egypt’s electricity generation. Government policy has consistently emphasized hydropower, but there is a view that most potential hydro resources have been already developed. Egypt’s hydropower potential is about 3664 MW with an estimated energy of 15,300 GWh/annum. There are currently five main hydropower generation locations, all of which located on the River Nile. Almost all the electricity generation comes from the Aswan High Dam and the Aswan Reservoir Dams. The Aswan High Dam power project has a theoretical generating capacity of 2.1 GW, although low water levels often prevent it from operating anywhere near design capacity. An ongoing refurbishment program is expected to extend the operational life of the turbines by about 40 years and increase generating capacity at the dam to 2.4 GW. The remaining hydropower sites are considered very modest when compared to the Aswan sites.
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