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Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area
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"File:VallesGeothermalAreasMap.pdf|thumb|350px|left|Figure 1. Map showing the locations of the Redondo, [[Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area|Sulphur Springs]], and [[Jemez Springs Geothermal Area|Jemez Springs]] geothermal areas and of the [[Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area|Fenton Hill HDR Project]] of the Valles Caldera. Modified from Goff and Janik (2002) Figure 2.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000003-QINU`"']] The Valles Caldera is located in the Jemez Mountains volcanic field of north-central New Mexico. Valles is the type example of a resurgent caldera system,'"`UNIQ--ref-00000004-QINU`"' and is host to a long-lived < 300°C geothermal system.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000005-QINU`"' Documentation of hot spring occurrences of the Jemez Plateau dates back to before 1913, and includes descriptions of discharges at [[Jemez Springs Geothermal Area|Jemez Springs]] and [[Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area|Sulphur Springs]].'"`UNIQ--ref-00000006-QINU`"' From 1968 – 1970, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted several early studies describing the caldera geology, stratigraphy, and structure.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000007-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-00000008-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-00000009-QINU`"' Bailey et al. (1969) originally described the intracaldera volcanic stratigraphy as (from youngest to oldest) the Banco Bonito, El Cajete, and Battleship Rock Members of the Valles Rhyolite based on surface mapping of the caldera. The caldera stratigraphy has since been refined based on surface geologic mapping and lithologies from scientific drill holes.'"`UNIQ--ref-0000000A-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-0000000B-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-0000000C-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-0000000D-QINU`"' Numerous geochronology studies have also contributed to the interpreted stratigraphy and eruptive history of the caldera. Ages of spring deposits, eruptive units, and core samples of vein minerals and altered host rocks have been determined through 14C,'"`UNIQ--ref-0000000E-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-0000000F-QINU`"' K-Ar,'"`UNIQ--ref-00000010-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-00000011-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-00000012-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-00000013-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-00000014-QINU`"' Ar-Ar,'"`UNIQ--ref-00000015-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-00000016-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-00000017-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-00000018-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-00000019-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-0000001A-QINU`"' U series,'"`UNIQ--ref-0000001B-QINU`"' '"`UNIQ--ref-0000001C-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-0000001D-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-0000001E-QINU`"' thermoluminescence,'"`UNIQ--ref-0000001F-QINU`"' and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR)'"`UNIQ--ref-00000020-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-00000021-QINU`"' dating methods. The U.S. government purchased the caldera in 2000 and designated it the Valles Caldera National Preserve, with the intention of protecting its unique geology and scenic beauty while promoting scientific investigations including the preparation of detailed geologic maps.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000022-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-00000023-QINU`"' The naturally occurring hydrothermal system at Valles is subdivided into the Redondo, [[Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area|Sulphur Springs]], and [[Jemez Springs Geothermal Area|Jemez Springs]] geothermal areas based on the distribution of springs and fumaroles, past geothermal exploration projects, and scientific drilling programs. Surface discharges at Redondo and Sulphur Springs are fed by upwelling fluids from chemically distinct, isolated reservoirs beneath the caldera floor. Waters from these reservoirs also feed the Jemez Springs system outside the caldera walls to the southwest, reaching the springs primarily by structurally controlled lateral outflow and by more minor flow through Paleozoic strata. The locations of these geothermal areas and the [[Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area|Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Project]] are shown in Figure 1. The Redondo Geothermal Area--formerly known as the Baca Geothermal System or Baca Geothermal Field during the time that Unocal owned the geothermal lease'"`UNIQ--ref-00000024-QINU`"'--is located in the southwestern portion of the Valles Caldera beneath the Redondo Peak’s resurgent dome. Union Oil Company (Unocal) drilled a series of 24 wells into a portion of this resurgent dome, which yielded a considerable amount of data regarding the subsurface stratigraphy, structure, and temperature of the Redondo Reservoir.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000025-QINU`"' Reservoir fluids sampled from the Bandelier Tuff in drill hole Baca-13 are hydrothermal brines that contain up to 1910 mg/L Cl-.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000026-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-00000027-QINU`"' Maximum temperature encountered over the course of the project was 342°C in the deepest well, Baca-12, which was drilled to a depth of 3.2 km. The project was ultimately abandoned when the overall volume of the reservoir proved to be too small for commercial development." cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. The given value was not understood.
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