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Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area
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"Field, chemical, and isotopic data for 95
"Field, chemical, and isotopic data for 95 thermal and nonthermal waters in and around the Valles Caldera were collected by Goff et al. in 1982 to help interpret the geothermal potential of the Jemez Mountains region and to provide background data for investigating problems in hydrology, structural geology, hydrothermal alterations, and hydrothermal solution chemistry.'"`UNIQ--ref-0000003A-QINU`"' Temperature, pH, and flow rate data were collected in the field, and all samples were analyzed for their chemical compound and major element contents. Select samples were also analyzed for their D and 18O isotope contents. The sampling program documented the locations of numerous hot springs, fumaroles, and wells in the region around the Valles caldera, and included: *22 samples from [[Jemez Springs Geothermal Area|Jemez Springs]] *15 samples from [[Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area|Sulphur Springs]] *13 isolated samples from the Redondo area. Twenty-four wells were drilled into a portion of the Redondo Peak Resurgent Dome from 1959 to 1983 by Unocal as a part of a geothermal exploration and development program within what was known as the Baca Project Area (now referred to as the Redondo Geothermal Area). In 1984, Nielson and Hulen described the intracaldera volcanic stratigraphy in the vicinity of Redondo Peak based on detailed logging of subsurface samples from these wells, which provided insights that improved interpretation of the internal structure of the resurgent dome.'"`UNIQ--ref-0000003B-QINU`"' Maximum temperatures of 342°C were encountered in the deepest Unocal well, Baca-12, drilled to a depth of 3.2 km. A series of core holes were drilled from 1984 to 1988 as a part of the CSDP to better understand the stratigraphy, structure, hydrothermal alteration, and subsurface architecture of the Valles Caldera. Numerous studies have reported the results from these core holes, which include the VC-1 core hole drilled at Redondo Creek and the VC-2A and VC-2B core holes at [[Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area|Sulphur Springs]].'"`UNIQ--ref-0000003C-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-0000003D-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-0000003E-QINU`"' '"`UNIQ--ref-0000003F-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-00000040-QINU`"' '"`UNIQ--ref-00000041-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-00000042-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-00000043-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-00000044-QINU`"' '"`UNIQ--ref-00000045-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-00000046-QINU`"' '"`UNIQ--ref-00000047-QINU`"' '"`UNIQ--ref-00000048-QINU`"' '"`UNIQ--ref-00000049-QINU`"' The CSDP has greatly improved understanding of the intracaldera subsurface stratigraphy and structure, helped define the intracaldera reservoirs and the hydrothermal outflow plume along the Jemez Fault Zone, facilitated measurement of bottom hole temperatures, and allowed for the description of alteration and ore deposit analogues associated with the active hydrothermal system. Wilt and Haar (1986) carried out a series of geophysical surveys at the Redondo and [[Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area|Sulphur Springs]] geothermal areas within the caldera in hopes of outlining deep drilling targets.'"`UNIQ--ref-0000004A-QINU`"' These included telluric profiles, magnetotelluric sounding, DC resistivity, gravity, and electromagnetic sounding surveys that were integrated to help define the electrical structure in the reservoir region(s). The most useful of these were the telluric profiles and the magnetotelluric sounding data sets since those surveys provided a good penetration depth. Resistivity models were principally constructed from these data and were tested against the other geophysical data sets. Magnetotelluric results indicate a deep, low resistivity anomaly at the western edge of the caldera that is potentially associated with deep hot fluids. Density log data from Redondo Creek indicate three major density units within the well section that were differentiated for modeling purposes: a surface layer of caldera fill, lake deposits, and other recent alluvium (2.12 g/cm^3); the Bandelier Tuff and underlying volcanic and sedimentary units (2.3--2.5 g/cm^3); and the basement unit, consisting of the lower Paleozoic and the upper Precambrian (2.65 g/cm^3). Geophysical and well data were used to construct computer models that provide a general guide to subsurface structure; these models are useful for identifying large-scale changes. On the basis of geophysical and well data, the authors made three estimates of reservoir dimensions. In 1995, Roberts et al. described the experimental details, data analysis, and forward modeling for scattered-wave amplitude data recorded during a teleseismic earthquake survey performed in the Valles Caldera in the summer of 1987.'"`UNIQ--ref-0000004B-QINU`"' Twenty-four high-quality teleseismic events were recorded at numerous sites along a line spanning the ring fracture and at several sites outside of the caldera. A modification of the Aki-Lamer method was used to model the amplitude data. Results confirmed the presence of a shallow attenuating anomaly; they were used to estimate the quantitative parameters defining it. Teleseismic monitoring continued into the summer of 1994 through the Jemez Tomography Experiment (JTEX), a multidisciplinary effort to understand the structure of the Jemez volcanic field below the Valles Caldera. Steck et al. (1998) integrated data from several active and passive seismology, geology, gravity, and electromagnetic studies to produce a detailed 3-D model of the subsurface deep beneath the caldera. Inversion of 4,872 teleseismic P wave relative arrival times allowed for successful imaging of the Toledo Embayment (assumed to have formed during the collapse of the Toledo Caldera) and revealed a region that contains at least 10% melt between 5 and 15.5 km depth underlying the active hydrothermal features on the west side of the caldera. This low-velocity zone is thought to represent a new pulse of magma into the crust rather than residual Bandelier magma. Low velocities were also detected near the crust-mantle boundary, and are thought to relate to partial melting of the upper mantle and subsequent underplating of basaltic melt in the upper mantle and/or lower crust. A Master’s thesis study completed in 2004 by Erin H. Phillips helped to refine understanding of the post-collapse history of the Valles caldera.'"`UNIQ--ref-0000004C-QINU`"' The research utilized 40Ar/39Ar age dating to investigate the maximum time window of resurgence and rate of uplift of Redondo Peak, the timing of eruption of the Deer Canyon and Redondo Creek rhyolites, and how these eruption ages relate to changes in the magma chamber prior to and during resurgence. In addition, the study investigated the ages of several megabreccia blocks within the Valles Caldera. Goff et al. (2006) produced detailed geologic maps of the southern half of the Valles Caldera and surrounding area as a contribution to the New Mexico State Map Program.'"`UNIQ--ref-0000004D-QINU`"' Geologic mapping and differentiation of the intracaldera rocks has since been used to guide detailed elemental analysis of previously unrecognized zeolitic alteration in post-eruption lithologic units. Chipera et al. (2008) made further contributions to the differentiation of lacustrine and volcaniclastic lithologic units within the caldera and characterized shallow zeolitic alteration associated with formation of the post-eruption intracaldera paleolake.'"`UNIQ--ref-0000004E-QINU`"' Roughly 80 samples of fresh and altered rocks from early volcanic and lacustrine rock units were collected from the middle to the lower flanks of the resurgent dome and from various locations in the caldera moat to study mineral abundances using [[X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)|X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD)]], examine specific mineral texture/morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and determine the trace element geochemistry of representative Valles zeolites using electron microprobe analyses (EPMA). The sample set included: *20 samples of upper Bandelier Tuff *20 samples of intracaldera fluvial/lacustrine rocks *30 samples of Deer Canyon lavas, Deer Canyon tuffs, and Redondo Creek lavas * 10 samples of moat lacustrine deposit rocks. The distribution of zeolites throughout the earliest Valles Caldera rocks is non-uniform and therefore subeconomic, with high concentrations of zeolites occurring rarely in isolated outcrops. Characterization of the zeolites revealed that mordenite and clinoptilolite are the most commonly occurring zeolites at the Valles Caldera. Erionite, an extremely carcinogenic zeolite linked with mesothelioma, was not identified at Valles Caldera, confirming that the zeolites present at Valles do not pose health and safety risks for those who visit the Valles Caldera National Preserve." cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. The given value was not understood.
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