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Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area
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"The age of the Valles Caldera hydrotherma
"The age of the Valles Caldera hydrothermal system has been dated to be about 1 Ma,'"`UNIQ--ref-000000A2-QINU`"' indicating rapid initiation of hydrothermal activity following formation of the caldera at 1.25 Ma.'"`UNIQ--ref-000000A3-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-000000A4-QINU`"' Reservoir geofluids encountered during drilling within the caldera are neutral-chloride waters (on the order of several thousand mg/L Cl-) between 250-300°C '"`UNIQ--ref-000000A5-QINU`"' that contain approximately 5000-18,000 mg/kg total dissolved solids.'"`UNIQ--ref-000000A6-QINU`"' These fluids are interpreted to be deeply circulating old meteoric waters,'"`UNIQ--ref-000000A7-QINU`"' and do not resemble any of the surface hot springs within the caldera in terms of their chemical composition.'"`UNIQ--ref-000000A8-QINU`"' Isotopic and thermal data indicate the hydrothermal system is dominated by relatively recent meteoric recharge that reaches depths of 2-3 km and temperatures of about 300°C.'"`UNIQ--ref-000000A9-QINU`"' 36Cl/Cl ratios indicate that these fluids evolve into highly saline geothermal brines by leaching chloride from Precambrian basement and Paleozoic rocks, and limit subsurface residence times to <100,000 years.'"`UNIQ--ref-000000AA-QINU`"' Geofluids then become entrained in convective upflow along faults and fractures to depths of 500-600 m, and then flow laterally to the southwest along the Jemez fault.'"`UNIQ--ref-000000AB-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-000000AC-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-000000AD-QINU`"' The 20-km-long fault system serves as a conduit that channels thermal waters away from the upflow plume, resulting in hot springs and other surface manifestations of variably mixed hydrothermal fluids outside the caldera wall.'"`UNIQ--ref-000000AE-QINU`"' As such, the Jemez Fault Zone serves as the principle discharge from the Sulphur Springs and Redondo reservoirs that feeds the neutral-chloride hot springs at Soda Dam and at Jemez Springs in San Diego Canyon along the Jemez River, although some discharge outside the caldera results from limited lateral flow through permeable Paleozoic strata.'"`UNIQ--ref-000000AF-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-000000B0-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-000000B1-QINU`"' In contrast, hot and cold springs in the western moat zone of the caldera have lower temperatures below 40°C, lower Cl- concentrations between 2-7 mg/L, and are thought to be recharged by recent meteoric waters that are variably heated by shallow circulation through the ring fracture zone of the caldera.'"`UNIQ--ref-000000B2-QINU`"' Dates on the travertine deposits of the Soda Dam area indicate that the outflow plume has been part of the Valles hydrothermal system for approximately '"`UNIQ--math-000000B3-QINU`"' years, and that travertine formation occurred in at least three distinct episodes of deposition.'"`UNIQ--ref-000000B4-QINU`"'" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. The given value was not understood.
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Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area + Has processing error
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