Regional Study to Guide Policy Interventions for Enhancing the Development and Transfer of Publicly-Funded Environmentally Sound Technologies in Asia and the Pacific Region
"This background study was undertaken to guide the design and implementation of policy interventions accelerating the transfer of publicly-funded ESTs. The report contains broadly scoped overviews of the field of ESTs and key aspects of technology transfer. These clearly reveal the challenges faced in effective EST transfer. ESTs are extremely diverse and may not be classified as environmental at all. Technology transfer can follow different pathways, initiated by government, private sector and/or communities. Key challenges in technology transfer pertain to assessment and selection of ESTs and adaptation and replication of the transferred ESTs. Government, business and academia all have to play a role in facilitating development and transfer of ESTs, cooperating within a national system of innovation. Government can influence the boundary conditions, and assist with clearly articulating national environment and sustainable development priorities, to be addressed through Research and Technology Development (R&TD). Business is primarily involved as user of ESTs, and can be actively encouraged to adopt ESTs by traditional environmental management strategies, as well as generic support for technology upgrading. Academia can lead and/or contribute to knowledge development, technology development and technology application, but being effective therein generally requires their greater engagement with society and becoming more transparent and accountable on research processes and outcomes.
The actual potential for transfer of publicly-funded ESTs is insufficiently analysed and the current evidence for the possibilities of transfer of publicly-funded ESTs is therefore inconclusive. Current Science and Technology (S&T) funding schemes appear to steer away from delivering ‘publicly-funded’ technologies in general and even substantive studies have so far not uncovered considerable segments of publicly-funded ESTs. The issues involved in the potential transfer of ‘publicly-funded’ ESTs appear not to be different from those for ‘privately-funded’ ESTs. In any case the successful technology transfer will depend on effective national systems of innovation, which remain weak in most parts of Asia and Pacific. This report aims at presenting the opportunities to create a regional network of national innovation centres or agencies that are closely involved in the full cycle of EST development and transfer. Such network under the guidance and with support from the UNESACP Asia Pacific Centre for Technology Transfer can become instrumental in initiating collaborative initiatives to develop and disseminate best practices EST development and transfer in the region and in mainstreaming environment into national systems of innovation."