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A Guide to Community Solar: Utility, Private, and Non-profit Project Development +This guide provides information for communities interested in developing community solar projects. Community solar is the term used to describe a "solar-electric system that, through a voluntary program, provides power and/or financial benefit to, or is owned by, multiple community members." This document overviews three sponsorship models commonly used for community solar projects: the utility-sponsored model; the special purpose entity model; and the non-profit "buy a brick" model. Advantages and disadvantages of each model are discussed, as are key financial, legal and implementation considerations. Examples of communities implementing each model are also provided. Additionally, this guide provides an overview of the state policies (e.g., group billing, virtual net metering, and joint ownership policies) that encourage community solar projects. State and federal tax policies and incentives available to community solar systems are also discussed, as are securities compliance considerations.  +
An Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances +This document provides a summary of existing wind energy ordinances that provides a foundation for state and local governments and policymakers when developing their own ordinances.  This document presents approved wind energy ordinances from 9 different states across the US that are being used in rural cities, counties, and townships. The ordinances included can be used by communities to create a vision for wind deployment as well as initiate and guide wind project implementation in communities without existing wind ordinances.  +
Animal Farm Powers Village +This press release describes a project completed in Hatherop, a small English village. The project is a combined heat and power (CHP) plant (supplied by Alfagy) that will produce heat and electricity using biogas generated through the anaerobic digestion of agricultural waste (including chicken litter, manure, and pig slurry). The project was financed with a grant from the Rural Development Fund for European Development 2007-2013: Europe Investing in Rural Areas.  +
Assessment of the Technical Potential for Micro-Cogeneration in Small Commercial Buildings across the United States +This paper presents an assessment of the technical potential for micro-cogeneration in small commercial buildings throughout the United States. The cogeneration devices are simulated with the computer program EnergyPlus using models developed by Annex 42, a working group of the International Energy Agency's Energy Efficiency in Buildings and COmmunity Systems (IES/ECBCS)/ Although the Annex 42 models were developed for residential applications, this study applies them to small commercial buildings. The potential for micro-cogeneration is examined for the entire exisitng stock using a bottom -up method based on 1,236 EnergyPlus models. Technical potential for micro-cogeneration is characterized by adding micro-cogeneration to individual baseline building models and quantifying the changes in a variety of whole-building area-normalized, performance metrics including site energy, source energy, and energy cost.  +
Chicago Climate Action Plan +Chicago's Climate Action Plan addresses both mitigation of and adaptation to climate change and encompasses the entire city (rather than only City operations). The plan contains a high-level overview of Chicago's climate action initiatives, including 26 mitigation strategies and nine adaptation strategies.  +
City of Aspen Climate Action Plan +This City of Aspen's Climate Action Plan describes the Aspen city government's goals and ideas for reducing greenhouse gas emissions both attributable to government operations and from the community as a whole. The plan contains background information on climate change, results from the City's baseline greenhouse gas inventory and action steps to address greenhouse gases from various sectors. It also includes goals for renewable energy for the city's municipal utility, goals for community deployment of renewable energy systems and calls for increasing Colorado's renewable electricity standard and the renewable energy portfolio of the rural electric cooperative that also serves the City. Population Citation: http://www.city-data.com/city/Aspen-Colorado.html  +
Climate Action Planning: A Review of Best Practices, Key Elements, and Common Climate Strategies for Signatories to the American College & University Presidents' Climate Commitment +This report summarizes insights, lessons learned, and best practices gained from the analysis of 50 college and university climate action plans, most of which were developed by signatories to the American College & University Presidents' Climate Commitment (ACUPCC). The ACUPCC commits schools to achieving carbon neutrality. Based on this analysis, the report summarizes the role climate action plans play in achieving climate neutrality; key elements of a climate action plan; and steps for creating a climate action plan. The report includes detailed discussion of stakeholder involvement, establishing a target date and interim targets for achieving climate neutrality, prioritizing emissions reduction strategies, and establishing metrics to track projects. Finally, the publication includes an overview of strategies commonly included in climate action plans. along with brief case studies showcasing strategies in specific institutions.  +
Community Energy Planning A Guide for Communities Volume 1 - Introduction +This report discusses the concept of Community Energy Planning and its relationship with existing planning processes in Canada. The report also discusses the idea of sustainability and how it is applicable at the community level.   +
Community Energy Planning A Guide for Communities Volume 2 - The Community Energy Plan +This report details the process of developing the Community Energy Plan, allowing communities to understand the process and thereby achieve a greater level of community buy-in. The support of the community at large is essential for any community plan to be successful.  +
Community Energy Planning A Resource Guide for Remote Communities in Canada +This document is provides background material and a step-by-step approach to aid remote communities in the process of developing a Community Energy Plan (CEP) and managing their long-term energy use.  +
Community Energy Planning Tool +This is a planning tool that describes a planning process that can help communities move towards a sustainable future. What that future looks like, and how it will be reached, is decided by the community, during this process. Through planning and strategy implementation, communities can motivate and facilitate accelerated rates of local energy conservation, efficiency, and renewable resource use.  +
Community Greening: How to Develop a Strategic Plan +This is a brief guide showcasing each step on how to formulate a strategic plan and what the benefits of strategic planning are. Some examples are highlighted within each step.  +
Community Renewable Energy Deployment: City of Montpelier Project +This case study describes Montpelier, Vermont's efforts under the Department of Energy's Community Renewable Energy Deployment (CommRE) grant program. The city is taking a multi-faceted approach to reducing energy consumption.  First, Montpelier is developing a combined heat and power (CHP) district energy system, which will be powered using renewable biomass energy in the form of local, sustainably harvested wood chips.  The CHP facility will initially provide heat to a state building complex but will also have the capacity for future connection of commercial and privately owned buildings. As buildings are connected to the system, Montpelier will identify energy-saving measures that will help to ensure that this energy is used efficiently. Finally, the city is identifying and implementing financing mechanisms to enable home owners to retrofit residential buildings for greater energy efficiency and renewable energy consumption. This project highlights a community that has evaluated its options and begun the process of developing, financing, and implementing a project.  Montpelier used an outside consulter, Veolia Distric Energy, to determine the feasibility of the project, and options for the city.  The case study also includes documentation of getting community involvement and feedback for the implementation of the project. Montpelier includes documentation of its process for developing, financing, and implementing the project on its website,http://www.montpelier-vt.org/group/99.html.  +
Community Renewable Energy Deployment: Forest County Potawatomi Tribe +This short case study describes Forest County Potowatomi Tribe's renewable energy deployment plan under a grant awarded by the Department of Energy's Community Renewable Energy Deployment (CommRE) program. The tribe is installing a biomass-fueled combined heat and power facility to provide heating, coolling, and electricity to several Tribal government and reservation buildings. Additionally, the project will involve the installation of a biogas digester to generate electricity from locally-generated organic waste. Finally, the project will install a solar array on an administration building in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.  +
Community Renewable Energy Deployment: Haxtun Wind Project +This short case study describes Phillips County's Haxtun Wind Project efforts through the Department of Energy's Community Renewable Energy Deployment (CommRE) grant program.  The County is installing a community owned wind farm near Haxtun, CO under the management of NECO Wind, LLC, under National Wind, LLC. The case study includes general economic impacts of the project, as well as how Nelco wind determined the feasibility of wind in North Eastern Colorado.  The case study also includes a brief description of the advisory board of local community members, landowners, and project founders that meet monthly to give feedback to National Wind, LLC on the project's status.  +
Community Renewable Energy Deployment: Sacramento Municipal Utility District Projects +This case study describes the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's efforts under the Department of Energy's Community Renewable Energy Deployment (CommRE) grant program.  The project includes a concentrator photovoltaic installation along California Highway 50 and anaerobic digestion and biogas production at two separate dairies, at a wastewater treatment facility, and at a recycling and transfer station in the Sacramento region. To implement these projects, SMUD has created partnerships with a variety of organizations, including California Department of Transpiration, Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District, New Hope Dairy, Van Warmerdam Dairy, Sacramento Recycling and Transfer Station, California Bioenergy, Innate Energy, RealEnergy, SolFocus, Williams Engineering, The State of California, California Energy Commission, California Air Resources Board.  +
Community Renewable Energy Deployment: University of California at at Davis Project +The University of California at Davis West Village Energy Initiative is partially funded by the Department of Energy's Community Renewable Energy Deployment (CommRE) grant. The West Village Community and is a community near the UC Davis campus designed for faculty, staff, and student involvement in campus life.  The community is using a combination of a solar photovoltaic array and fuel cells supplied with biogas from the campus waste to achieve the project goals. The project will demonstrate smart-grid technology. The University of California's partners include West Village LLC, Chevron Energy Solutions, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, RESCO  +
Community Response to Concentrating Solar Power in the San Luis Valley +This report is about the social acceptance of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) plants in the San Luis Valley, approximately 200 miles southwest of Denver, Colorado. The research focused on social factors that may facilitate and impede the adoption and implementation of CSP. During the winter of 2008-2009, interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 25 CSP-related stakeholders inside and outside the Valley. Interviews focused on the perceived advantages and disadvantages of siting a hypothetical 100-MW CSP facility in the Valley, the level of community support and opposition to CSP development, and related issues, such as transmission. State policy recommendations based on the findings include developing education programs for Valley residents, integrating Valley decision makers into an energy-water-land group, providing training for Valley decision makers, offering workforce training, evaluating models of taxation, and forming landholder energy associations.  +
Definition of a Zero Net Energy Community +This document provides a definition for a net zero-energy community. A community that offsets all of its energy use from renewable energy available within the community's built environment. It assists a community also by showing the importance of this classification by encouraging developers and campus and community planners to develop a comprehensive multi-year plan to both understand the magnitude of change needed in community energy patterns to move toward the concept of a net-zero community and to lay out a multi-year scenario with defined milestones to drive the transition.   +
EDIN-USVI Clean Energy Quarterly +The EDIN-USVI Clean Energy Quarterly is a quarterly newsletter documenting the progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN) U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) pilot project. The newsletter highlights activities, meetings, and accomplishments of EDIN's five working groups: Policy and Analysis, Education and Workforce Development, Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, and Transportation. The newsletters provide updates on the stakeholders involved in the various workgroups and the initiative as a whole; a description of key analyses underway (e.g., USVI Energy Road Map; USVI 2025 Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan); and records of education and energy projects currently underway within the territory. The USVI is currently assessing and implementing a number of projects, including a 15.4 MW waste-to-energy plant; an upgrade to the St. Croix power plant to recover waste heat from combustion turbines; and an energy savings company (ESCO) project to provide energy and water efficiency upgrades to local schools.  +
Embracing Sustainability in Community Plans +This article, originally published in the American Planning Association's "Planning" magazine, provides high-level guidance to city and community planners on developing sustainability and climate action plans. The author presents some key factors to take into consideration when organizing and developing such plans at the community through the state level. The discussion also highlights the importance of baselines, benchmarks, and indicators in developing a target and tracking progress. Several cities and communities who have created notable sustainability plans are cited as case studies. General strategies and policies related to reducing emissions through transportation, renewable energy, energy efficiency, and land use measures are also discussed.  +
First Known Use of QECBs will Save Yolo County at lease $8.7 Million of the Next 25 Years +In July, 2010, Yolo County, CA installed a 1 MW solar photovoltaic array to supply power to a local jail and a juvenile center. This brief case study overviews the county's use of a variety of financial mechanisms--including qualified energy conservation bonds (QECBs), clean renewable energy bonds (CREBs), loans, and utility rebates--to fund this project.  +
From Tragedy to Triumph: Rebuilding Greensburg, Kansas, To Be a 100% Renewable Energy City +The city of Greensburg, Kansas, is rebuilding as a model green community with the help of the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A tornado destroyed or damaged 95% of the town's homes and businesses on May 4, 2007. Greensburg turned disaster into opportunity and created a vision to rebuild as a sustainable community. The town has gathered a diverse group of experts, including DOE and NREL, to make their vision of rebuilding green a reality. The resource highlights all other steps of the energy transformation process, from bringing the right people into the process, through the evaluation of effectiveness once projects have been completed.  The paper highlights technical information for several technologies ranging over Agriculture, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Industry, People and Policy, Transportation, and Water Conservation.  Renewable Energy technologies highlighted in the paper include Biomass, Ground Source Heat Pumps, Solar Photovoltaics and Hot Water, Waterpower, and Wind Power. This case study complements NREL's more detailed technical report on the lab's work with the Greensburg community (see "Rebuilding Greensburg, Kansas as a Model Green Community: A Case Study," available athttp://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/corporate/45136.pdf).  +
Greensburg, Kansas--A Better, Greener Place to Live +The city of Greensburg, Kansas, is rebuilding as a model green community with the help of the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A tornado destroyed or damaged 95% of the town's homes and businesses on May 4, 2007. Greensburg turned disaster into opportunity and created a vision to rebuild as a sustainable community. The town has gathered a diverse group of experts, including DOE and NREL, to make their vision of rebuilding green a reality. This brochure highlights the inspiring story of Greensburg's recovery, with many examples of disaster recovery accomplishments.  The resource describes the communities process of creating a vision, developing their economic and environmental goals, preparing a plan to implement, finance, and develop their goals, and create early success through education and outreach programs.  The brochure also highlights several of the technologies related to agriculture, buildings, economic development, increasing energy efficiency,  attracting new industry, management of people and policy, as well as how renewable energy technology was incorporated into their recovery, including solar, wind, hydro and geothermal power.  +
How Would You Rebuild a Town - Green? +The city of Greensburg, Kansas, is rebuilding as a model green community with the help of the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A tornado destroyed or damaged 95% of the town's homes and businesses on May 4, 2007. Greensburg turned disaster into opportunity and created a vision to rebuild as a sustainable community. The town has gathered a diverse group of experts, including DOE and NREL, to make their vision of rebuilding green a reality. This Tri-fold brochure provides information about the Greensburg Sustainable Building Database, which includes examples from Greensburg of the variety of buildings and projects that can save a community energy and increase renewable energy use. The information provided by this resource is a quick overview of how Greensburg underwent it's energy transformation after the natural disaster.  The Tri-fold includes information on what steps are important, from bringing the right people together, create a vision, develop goals, prepare a plan, gather feedback, finance, and create early success by education and outreach programs in the community.  +