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Property Name Geothermal/ProjectDesc
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A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify the Seismic Response of Fractures and Permeable Zones Over a Known Geothermal Resource at Soda Lake, Churchill Co., NV Geothermal Project +The Soda Lake geothermal field is an ideal setting to test the applicability of the 3D-3C reflection seismic method because: it is a producing field with a great deal of geologic and drilling data already available; it is in an alluvial valley where the subsurface structures that carry the geothermal fluids have no surface manifestations; and, there are downhole geophysical logs of fractures and permeable zones that can be used to ground-truth the new data. If the 3D-3C method is successful it will bring a powerful tool into use in the industry to select targets with the permeability, heat, and fluid needed to exploit geothermal resources.  +
A Demonstration System for Capturing Geothermal Energy from Mine Waters beneath Butte, MT Geothermal Project +Butte, Montana, like many other mining towns that developed because of either hard-rock minerals or coal, is underlain by now-inactive water-filled mines. In Butte’s case, over 10,000 miles of underground workings have been documented, but as in many other mining communities these waters are regarded as more of a liability than asset. Mine waters offer several advantages: - The volume of water available for heat exchange is immense compared to that obtainable from wells, which are the most common source of groundwater for heat exchange. - Mine waters can commonly be accessed by using mine shafts, rather than drilling wells, thus attaining substantial savings in the initial installation costs. - Mine waters beneath Butte are abnormally warm, which provides large efficiency advantages during Butte’s long heating season. Success of this project would extend to large regions where warm, but not hot, geothermal waters are abundant and typically are being utilized only for small applications such as hot pools or spas, if at all. Cooler waters in many mines could similarly be used, particularly where cooling needs dominate. Engineering estimates state that the heating costs for the Natural Resource Building could be reduced by more than half simply by preheating incoming air with mine waters, and environmental benefits are gained from decreased NOx, SOx, and CO2 emissions as opposed to burning fossil fuels. Heat pumps should add to that efficiency. The completed building will be instrumented and monitored to document energy use, enable evaluation of real versus projected energy savings, and offer engineering classes and researchers the opportunity for hands-on data for modeling various building systems. Efficiencies attained at this site can be used to demonstrate potential economic and environmental benefits available to the city of Butte as well as sites throughout the U.S. The public outreach effort would include publications and presentations available on-site and at appropriate off-site venues. Increased public awareness of the benefits of Montana Tech’s system should result in greater willingness for others to invest in such systems, whether installed as ground loops, wells, or in mines, and consequent decreased consumption of fossil fuels and attendant emissions.  +
A Geothermal District-Heating System and Alternative Energy Research Park on the NM Tech Campus Geothermal Project +With prior support from the Department of Energy (GRED III Program), New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NM Tech) has established that this resource likely has sufficient permeability (3000 Darcies) and temperatures (80‐112 oC) to develop a campus‐wide district heating system. NM Tech anticipates saving about $810,000 per year through reduced consumption of natural gas. The proposed system will reduce the State’s greenhouse gas emissions by about 15,950 metric tons per year. It will help the state of NM achieve its goal of 20% use of renewable energy by 2020. The work plan will generate about 8 new construction jobs during the building of the District heating system.  +
A new analytic-adaptive model for EGS assessment, development and management support Geothermal Project +The University of Nevada - Reno (UNR), proposes to develop a new, integrated solution technique for simulating the Thermal, Hydrological, Mechanical, and Chemical (THMC) processes relevant to thermal energy extraction from an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). UNR defines the great challenges in numerical modeling as to (1) dealing with flows and transport in the stimulated fractures of the EGS of largely unknown geometry and characteristics; and (2) discovering the best possible cooling fluid circulation solution in the EGS by trial-and-error numerical simulations. The new THMC will have an adaptive, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) component, integrated with the THMC rockmass model in order to match field test signatures, or desired outcomes in design hypothesis test. The project's main hypothesis is that there are new solutions to heat extraction from an as-created, enhanced fracture system of EGS. The project will develop a new THMC simulation model with new capabilities and prove the main hypothesis by and applying it to various EGS designs including emerging concepts, two-phase (steam-gas-liquid) coolant flows in the fracture network, and dynamic, huff-puff operations. The project will generate jobs directly in education and many more indirectly. UNR will promote business with the model in the design of new EGS solutions, and support the development of a geothermal energy center in Nevada with REA250.  +
Advanced Seismic data Analysis Program (The “Hot Pot Project”) Geothermal Project +The proposed exploration surveys, drilling programs, data analysis and report generation will require 18 months to complete. It is anticipated that the resource confirmation drilling program will be successful in intersecting structural targets predicted by the 2.5-D advanced seismic analysis and model construction, effectively validating use of this innovative technology as a means to reduce drilling risk through improved well targeting. Oski expects that temporary field jobs will be created during the drilling stage and that long-term direct and indirect jobs would be created once this geothermal resource is proven and a geothermal plant is designed, financed and built.  +
Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution in CO2- and Water-Based Geothermal Reservoirs Geothermal Lab Call Project +The concepts and theory behind the use of heat-sensitive tracers to study the thermal evolution of geothermal reservoirs was developed in the late 1980's under the Hot Dry Rock Project. Those studies described–conceptually and mathematically–the application of reactive tracers to tracking thermal fronts and to reservoir sizing. Later mathematical treatments focused on application of a single reactive tracer test to recover the temperature profile of a single streamtube. Previous tracer work has mainly focused on identifying conservative tracers. In these studies, chemicals that degraded at reservoir temperatures were discarded. Benzoic acids and dicarboxylic acids, which were found by Adams to degrade, may be useful as reactive tracers. Organic esters and amide tracers that undergo hydrolysis have been investigated and their use as reactive tracers appears feasible over a temperature range of 100ºC to 275ºC. However their reaction rates are pH dependent and sorption reactions have not been evaluated. While reactive tracer parameters have been measured in the lab, reactive tracers have not been extensively tested in the field. Thus, while reactive tracers appear to be a promising means of monitoring the thermal evolution of a geothermal reservoir, the concept has yet to be tested at the scale necessary for successful implementation, and tools for analyzing results of such tracer tests under the non-ideal conditions of an actual geothermal system have yet to be developed.  +
Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal Lab Call Project +As the geothermal industry moves to use geothermal resources that are more expensive to develop, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. Because of increasing demand on finite supplies of water, this next generation of more efficient plants will likely need to reject heat sensibly to the ambient (air-cooling). This will be especially true in western states having higher grade Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) resources, as well as most hydrothermal resources. If one had a choice, an evaporative heat rejection system would be selected because it would provide both cost and performance advantages. The evaporative system, however, consumes a significant amount of water during heat rejection that would require makeup. Though they use no water, air-cooling systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at a higher temperature), lower power sales due to higher parasitics (fan power), and greater variability in power output (because of large variation in the dry-bulb temperature).  +
Alum Innovative Exploration Project Geothermal Project +Phase 1 exploration will consist of two parts: 1) surface and near surface investigations and 2) subsurface geophysical surveys and modeling. The first part of Phase 1 includes: a hyperspectral imaging survey (to map thermal anomalies and geothermal indicator minerals), shallow (6 ft) temperature probe measurements, and drilling of temperature gradient wells to depths of 1000 feet. In the second part of Phase 1, 2D & 3D geophysical modeling and inversion of gravity, magnetic, and magnetotelluric datasets will be used to image the subsurface. This effort will result in the creation of a 3D model composed of structural, geological, and resistivity components. The 3D model will then be combined with the temperature and seismic data to create an integrated model that will be used to prioritize drill target locations. Four geothermal wells will be drilled and geologically characterized in Phase 2. The project will use a coiled-tube rig to test this drilling technology at a geothermal field for the first time. Two slimwells and two production wells will be drilled with core collected and characterized in the target sections of each well. In Phase 3, extended flow tests will be conducted on the producible wells to confirm the geothermal resource followed by an overall assessment of the productivity of the Alum geothermal area. Finally, Phase 3 will evaluate the relative contribution of each exploration technique in reducing risk during the early stages of the geothermal project.  +
An Integrated Experimental and Numerical Study: Developing a Reaction Transport Model that Couples Chemical Reactions of Mineral Dissolution/Precipitation with Spatial and Temporal Flow Variations in CO2/Brine/Rock Systems Geothermal Project +This project will result in a numerical simulator (modified version of TOUGH2) that can adjust porosity and permeability fields according to experimentally observed chemical fluid-rock interactions (mineral dissolution/precipitation) under realistic conditions likely found when supercritical CO2 is injected into geothermal reservoirs for heat energy extraction. The simulator can thus help determine if CO2 injection into EGS brines will cause clogging of pore spaces or dissolution of host rocks with potentially detrimental consequences to heat extraction. As a result, this simulator will play a critical role when assessing long-term sustainability of geothermal energy utilization in enhanced and natural geothermal systems. The simulator can also be used to evaluate long-term CO2 sequestration potentials.  +
Analysis & Tools to Spur Increased Deployment of “ Waste Heat” Rejection/Recycling Hybrid GHP Systems in Hot, Arid or Semiarid Climates Like Texas Geothermal Project +As GHP systems offer substantial energy efficiency by leveraging earth’s intrinsic thermal capacitance, they could play a pivotal role in achieving the DoE’s Building Technologies Pro-gram’s “zero energy” goal in heavily cooling-dominated climates. Moreover, SHR–augmented GHP systems, in particular, could play a vital role in reducing building energy consumption and limiting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in heavily cooling dominated states, like Texas, which are experiencing large increases in population and correspondingly, peak electricity demand. If only 0.1% of Texas,’ Arizona’s, New Mexico’s and Nevada’s nearly 15 million—or 15,000—homes were to install new (or convert their existing HVAC or heat pump system to) a full or hybrid GHP system, it would result in between $400 and $800 million USD of new economic activity, most of which would be domestic. Moreover, these 15,000 homes would cut their annual energy consumption—and concomitant GHG emissions—by roughly 40–70%; on average they would save about $1,000 USD in annual operating costs, collectively saving about $15 million USD annually. A conservative GHP industry estimate is that at least 900 people would be directly employed for every 10,000 GHP units installed. This project includes collaboration between UT Austin and the CTGHPSC, a broad industry–public service–entrepreneur coalition interested in advancing GHP system use in Texas and similarly challenged regions throughout the Nation. Austin Energy, the Nation’s 9th largest community-owned electric utility that has created the Nation’s top performing renewable energy program, and ClimateMaster, a leading manufacturer of geothermal heat pumps, are the principal industrial participants.  +
Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Geothermal Project +It has been widely recognized that the energy saving benefits of GSHP systems are best realized in the northern and central regions where heating needs are dominant or both heating and cooling loads are comparable. For hot and humid climate such as in the states of FL, LA, TX, southern AL, MS, GA, NC and SC, buildings have much larger cooling needs than heating needs. The Hybrid GSHP (HGSHP) systems therefore have been developed and installed in some locations of those states, which use additional heat sinks (such as cooling tower, domestic water heating systems) to reject excess heat. Despite the development of HGSHP the comprehensive analysis of their benefits and barriers for wide application has been limited and often yields non-conclusive results. In general, GSHP/HGSHP systems often have higher first costs than conventional systems making short-term economics unattractive. Addressing these technical and financial barriers call for additional evaluation of innovative utility programs, incentives and delivery approaches. From scientific and technical point of view, the potential for wide applications of GSHP especially HGSHP in hot and humid climate is significant, especially towards building zero energy homes where the combined energy efficient GSHP and abundant solar energy production in hot climate can be an optimal solution. To address these challenges, Florida International University propose gathering and analyzing data on the costs and benefits of GSHP/HGSHP systems utilized in southern states using a representative sample of building applications.  +
Analysis of Low-Temperature Utilization of Geothermal Resources Geothermal Project +In this proposal West Virginia University (WVU) outline a project which will perform an in-depth analysis of the low-temperature geothermal resources that dominate the eastern half of the United States. Full realization of the potential of what might be considered “low-grade” geothermal resources will require the examination many more uses for the heat than traditional electricity generation. To demonstrate that geothermal energy truly has the potential to be a national energy source the project will be designing, assessing, and evaluating innovative uses for geothermal-produced water such as hybrid biomass-geothermal cogeneration of electricity and district heating and efficiency improvements to the use of cellulosic biomass in addition to utilization of geothermal in district heating for community redevelopment projects. A diverse team of researchers that will evaluate low-temperature geothermal utilization for three different case studies: <br />- A hybrid biomass-geothermal cogeneration system at Cornell University, <br />- A system for cellulosic biomass gasification and utilization at Iowa State University, and <br />- A retrofit and expansion to a district heating system in a community redevelopment project at West Virginia University. These three case studies will be analyzed for the impacts of geothermal energy use in the form of fossil fuel and CO2 offsets, generalized for non-specific sites, and integrated into regional energy analysis models such as SEDS, MARKAL, and NEMS.  +
Application of 2D VSP Imaging Technology to the Targeting of Exploration and Production Wells in a Basin and Range Geothermal System Humboldt House-Rye Patch Geothermal Area Geothermal Project +Phase I will consist of the acquisition, processing and interpretation of two 2-dimensional vertical seismic profiles (VSPs) at strategic positions crossing the range front fault system in the Humboldt House-Rye Patch (HH-RP) geothermal resource area. APEX-HiPoint Reservoir Imaging, Project team partner, will use its borehole seismic technology deploying up to 240 multicomponent phones on a fiber optic wireline system coupled to a high-volume data acquisition system. A vibroseis source will be recorded along the 2D profiles with offsets up to 10,000 feet on either side of the receiver wells, creating a wide horizontal aperture. Using dynamic borehole cooling, the APEX receivers will be deployed in an extended vertical array above and below the interface (and large velocity contrast) between Tertiary valley fill sediments and Triassic and older reservoir rocks, significantly increasing vertical aperture, multiplicity, frequency and signal quality. Optim, Project Team partner, will use its patented nonlinear optimization technique on both borehole and surface data to obtain high resolution velocity models down to target depths, also a “first”. HiPoint’s patented, time-domain processing techniques will be employed to provide accurate, high-resolution reflection images in a fraction of previous compute times. Phase II will consist of the drilling of two wells to targets identified in Phase I, using equipment and services provided by Project team partner ThermaSource. Phase III extended testing and sampling will be contingent on the evaluation of Phase II results. The test sequence will be designed to use the existing site injection permit, monitoring flow rates, pressures and temperatures for a sufficient period to analyze reservoir properties and well capacities. Fluid sampling will be conducted at regular intervals throughout the test.  +
Application of a New Structural Model and Exploration Technologies to Define a Blind Geothermal System: A Viable Alternative to Grid-Drilling for Geothermal Exploration: McCoy, Churchill County, NV Geothermal Project +The structural model is based on the role of subsurface igneous dikes providing a buttressing effect in a regional strain field such that permeability is greatly enhanced. The basic thermal anomaly at McCoy was defined by substantial U.S. Department of Energy-funded temperature gradient drilling and geophysical studies conducted during the period 1978 to 1982. This database will be augmented with modern magnetotelluric, controlled-source audio-magnetotelluric, and 2D/3D reflection seismic surveys to define likely fluid up-flow plumes that will be drilled with slant-hole technology. Two sites for production-capable wells will be drilled in geothermally prospective areas identified in this manner. The uniqueness of this proposal lies in the use of a full suite of modern geophysical tools, use of slant-hole drilling, and the extensive technical database from previous DOE funding.  +
Away from the Range Front: Intra-Basin Geothermal Exploration Geothermal Project +The project applies the known relationship between fault permeability and the mechanics of rocks under stress to reduce risks in exploration well targeting. Although the concept has been applied before, the project would innovate by dramatically increasing the detail and types of information on the mechanical state of the target area using a variety of low-cost measurements in advance of deep drilling. In addition to the mechanical data, holes into the shallow warm aquifer related to the thermal anomaly will allow analysis of chemical indicators of upflow as a more direct measure of the location of fault permeability. The rock mechanics measurement strategy applies several stress and strain or offset measurement methods in order to more fully constrain the stress field and its variation across the area. Mechanical relationships between stress and strain will be used to integrate the field measurements and predict the orientation of permeable faults. Project technologies include: -Highly detailed and precise digital topography from airborne scanning laser data (LiDAR) to reveal recent fault offset patterns -Over-coring stress measurement in 30 meter (100 ft.) holes into outcropping rock -A laser trilateration strain network across the active fault zone to measure deformation -Push-core holes to 30 m (100 ft.) into unconsolidated sediments to obtain temperature gradients, fluid samples, and stratigraphic markers at very low cost -Trenching in a few selected locations to map recent offset history and fault dip -Analyses of helium, oxygen, and standard fluid chemistry from shallow hole samples to identify upflow along with the shallow temperature data -Slim well drilling followed by borehole image and permeability logging  +
BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (PHASE I) Geothermal Project +The Project will result in the construction of the largest ground source geothermal-based closed loop GHP heating and cooling system in America. Phase I of the Project began with the design, competitive bidding, and contract award for the drilling and “looping” of 1,800 boreholes in sports fields and parking lots on the north side of campus. The components of the entire Project include: (1) 4,100 four hundred feet deep boreholes spread over about 25 acres of sport fields and parking lots (Phase I will involve 1,800 boreholes spread over about 8 acres); (2) Each Phase will require a district energy station (about 9,000 sq. feet) that will each contain (A) two 2,500 ton heat pump chillers (which can produce 150 degree (F) water for heating purposes and 42 degree (F) water for cooling purposes); and (B) a variety of water pumps, electrical and other control systems; (3) a closed loop piping system that continuously circulates about 20,000 gallons of water (no anti-freeze) per minute through the boreholes, energy stations, a (two pipe) hot water loop and a (two pipe) chilled water loop (no water is drawn from the aquifer at any point in the operation); and (4) hot/chilled water-to-air heat exchangers in each of the buildings. Potential Impact of Project: (1) The University is requesting federal assistance via this Solicitation to complete Phase I of the overall Project. After that, the project will slow down significantly as our funding will largely be depleted. (2) 36,000 tons of coal per year will not be burned resulting in the elimination of 85,000 tons of CO2, 240 tons of nitrous oxide, 200 tons of particulate matter, 80 tons of carbon monoxide, and 1,400 tons of sulfur dioxide. Phase I will accomplish 50% of these reductions. (3) All of the major components of the Project are made and commercially available in America. (4) The University will realize $500,000 as each of its four stoker boilers is decommissioned. The decommissioning of two coal boilers in Phase I will annually provide the university with $1 Million in fuel and operational savings to enhance academic programs and moderate future tuition increases. (5) The owners of large buildings, including the 65,000 buildings with district heating systems in America, will learn how to reduce the “first costs” and other risks that a DOE report concludes are the major barriers to widespread adoption of GHP technology in America.  +
Base Technologies and Tools for Supercritical Reservoirs Geothermal Lab Call Project +Development of downhole tools capable of reliable operation in supercritical environments is a significant challenge with a number of technical and operational hurdles related to both the hardware and electronics design. Hardware designs require the elimination of all elastomer seals and the use of advanced materials. Electronics must be hardened to the extent practicable since no electronics system can survive supercritical temperatures. To develop systems capable of logging in these environments will require a number of developments. More robust packaging of electronics is needed. Sandia will design and develop innovated, highly integrated, high-temperature (HT) data loggers. These data loggers will be designed and developed using silicon-on-insulator/silicon carbide (SOI/SiC) technologies integrated into a MultiChip Module (MCM); greatly increasing the reliability of the overall system (eliminating hundreds of board-level innerconnects) and decreasing the size of the electronics package. Tools employing these electronics will be capable of operating continuously at temperatures up to 240 °C and by using advanced Dewar flasks, will operate in a supercritical reservoir with temperatures over 450 °C and pressures above 70 MPa. Dewar flasks are needed to protect the electronic components, but those currently available are only reliable in temperature regimes in the range of 350 °C; promising advances in materials will be investigated to improve Dewar technologies. HT wireline currently used for logging operations is compromised at temperatures above 300 °C; along with exploring the development of a HT wireline for logging purposes, alternative approaches that employ HT batteries (e.g., those awarded a recent R&D 100) will also be investigated, and if available will enable deployment using slickline, which is not subject to the same temperature limitations as wireline. To demonstrate the capability provided by these improvements, tools will be developed and fielded. The developed base technologies and working tool designs will be available to industry throughout the project period. The developed techniques and subsystems will help to further the advancement of HT tools needed in the geothermal industry.  +
Baseline System Costs for 50.0 MW Enhanced Geothermal System -- A Function of: Working Fluid, Technology, and Location Geothermal Project +This effort will support the expansion of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), supporting DOE Strategic Themes of “energy security” and sub goal of “energy diversity”; reducing the Nation’s dependence on foreign oil while improving our environment. A 50 MW has been chosen as a design point, so that the project may also assess how different machinery approaches will change the costing – it is a mid point in size where multiple solutions exist that will allow the team to effectively explore the options in the design space and understand the cost. This model and the variation in the aforementioned conditions will help answer key questions regarding the economic viability of EGS, and to what extent can the vision of EGS be achieved anywhere.  +
Beowawe Bottoming Binary Project Geothermal Project +The proposed two-year project supports the DOE GTP’s goal of promoting the development and commercial application of energy production from low-temperature geothermal fluids, i.e., between 150°F and 300°F.  +
Black Warrior: Sub-soil Gas and Fluid Inclusion Exploration and Slim Well Drilling Geothermal Project +The project area encompasses 6,273 acres of both private and federal lands including water and surface rights. It is reasonable to expect a capacity of about 20 MW. GeothermEx estimated a potential capacity of 40 MW. Black Warrior is a large blind geothermal prospect near the Pyramid Lake Indian Reservation that was identified by reconnaissance temperature gradient drilling in the 1980s by Philips Petroleum but was never tested through deep exploration drilling. Although the 10 square miles of high heat flow in the area reveals significant energy potential it also makes selection of an optimal exploration drilling target difficult.  +
Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys in Overt and Subtle Volcanic Systems, Hawaii and Maui Geothermal Project +The project will perform a suite of stepped geophysical and geochemical surveys and syntheses at both a known, active volcanic system at Puna, Hawai’i and a blind geothermal system in Maui, Hawai’i. Established geophysical and geochemical techniques for geothermal exploration including gravity, major cations/anions and gas analysis will be combined with atypical implementations of additional geophysics (aeromagnetics) and geochemistry (CO2 flux, 14C measurements, helium isotopes and imaging spectroscopy). Importantly, the combination of detailed CO2 flux, 14C measurements and helium isotopes will provide the ability to directly map geothermal fluid upflow as expressed at the surface. Advantageously, the similar though active volcanic and hydrothermal systems on the east flanks of Kilauea have historically been the subject of both proposed geophysical surveys and some geochemistry; the Puna Geothermal Field (Puna) (operated by Puna Geothermal Venture [PGV], an Ormat subsidiary) will be used as a standard by which to compare both geophysical and geochemical results.  +
CNCC Craig Campus Geothermal Program: 82-well closed loop GHP well field to provide geothermal energy as a common utility for a new community college campus. Geothermal Project +This "geothermal central plant" concept will provide ground source loop energy as a utility to be shared by the academic and residential buildings on the soon-to-be-constructed campus. The primary component in this campus approach is the common GHP well field ground heat exchanger (GHEX). The innovative design of the shared well field will demonstrate that it is cost-effective to develop shared geoexchange systems to provide GHP energy for present and future growth on campus. Each new building will be constructed with individual GHP mechanical systems and will utilize the common GHP loop energy. In addition to grants, the project will also be funded in-part from energy savings performance contracting. The demonstrated energy savings will be guaranteed by an energy services company (Chevron Energy Solutions) and the associated utility and operational savings will be leveraged to help fund the total cost of the project. As well as providing energy savings benefits, this project is expected to create 65 “green” jobs.  +
Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Geothermal Lab Call Project +Supercritical CO2 is currently becoming a more common fluid for extracting volatile oil and fragrance compounds from various raw materials that are used in perfumery. Furthermore, its use as a heat transmission fluid is very attractive because of the greater uptake capability of heat from hot reservoir rock, compared with that of water. However, one concern was the reactivity of CO2 with clay and rock minerals in aqueous and non-aqueous environments. So if this reaction leads to the formation of water-soluble carbonates, such formation could be detrimental to the integrity of wellbore infrastructure.  +
Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops Geothermal Project +- Improve the indoor air quality and lower the cost of cooling and heating the buildings that make up the campus of Cedarville High School, Middle School and Elementary School. - Provide jobs, and reduce requirements of funds for the capital budget of the School District, and thus give relief to taxpayers in this rural region during a period of economic recession. - The new Heat Pumps will be targeted to perform at very high efficiency with EER (energy efficiency ratios) of 22+/-. System capacity is planned at 610 tons. - Remove unusable antiquated existing equipment and systems from the campus heating and cooling system, but utilize ductwork, piping, etc. where feasible. The campus is served by antiquated air conditioning units combined with natural gas, and with very poor EER estimated at 6+/-. - Monitor for 3 years the performance of the new systems compared to benchmarks from the existing system, and provide data to the public to promote adoption of Geothermal technology. - The Geothermal installation contractor is able to provide financing for a significant portion of project funding with payments that fall within the energy savings resulting from the new high efficiency heating and cooling systems.  +
Characterizing Fractures in Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro-seismic Data, Using Soft Computing, Fractals, and Shear Wave Anisotropy Geothermal Project +The proposed program will focus on predicting characteristics of fractures and their orientation prior to drilling new wells. It will also focus on determining the location of the fractures, spacing and orientation during drilling, as well as characterizing open fractures after stimulation to help identify the location of fluid flow pathway within the EGS reservoir. These systems are created by passively injecting cold water, and stimulating the permeation of the injected water through existing fractures into hot wet and hot dry rocks by thermo-elastic cooling shrinkage. The stimulated, existing fractures thus enhance the permeability of the hot rock formations, hence enabling better circulation of water for the purpose of producing the geothermal resource. The main focus of the project will be on developing better understanding of the mechanisms for the stimulation of existing fractures, and to use the information for better exploitation of the high temperature geothermal resources located in the northwest portion of the Geysers field and similar fields.  +