Nepal-Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR)
- 1 Overview
- 2 Programs by Country
- 3 References
"The Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR), approved in November 2008, was the first program developed and operational under the Strategic Climate Fund (SCF), which is one of two funds within the design of the Climate Investment Funds (CIF). The PPCR aims to pilot and demonstrate ways in which climate risk and resilience may be integrated into core development planning and implementation. In this way, the PPCR provides incentives for scaled-up action and initiates transformational change. The pilot programs and projects implemented under the PPCR are country-led, build on National Adaptation Programs of Action (NAPA) and other relevant country studies and strategies. They are strategically aligned with other donor funded activities to provide financing for projects that will produce experience and knowledge useful to designing scaled-up adaptation measures."
Programs by Country
"Bangladesh requested the pilot to focus on the following five key sectors: agriculture and food security, extreme climate events and climate induced disaster, water resources, and public health, migration and social protection to pilot adaptation and to demonstrate ways to mainstream climate vulnerability and resilience into national policies and plans consistent with poverty reduction and sustainable development goals."
"Within the framework of the observed and projected effects of climate change for Bolivia, the issue of water resources is a central challenge, as indicated by the National Development Plan and National Adaptation Mechanism. The negative effects of climate change include the increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events (droughts and floods), which in turn have an impact on agricultural production, food security, infrastructure and human health among others. Climate change also accelerates the increase of water scarcity in some of river basins, which affects various water availability for drinking (with indirect impacts on human health), for agricultural production (with impacts on food security, farmers' incomes, and rural and urban poverty), for the production of hydropower, for mining and industrial production, and for ecosystems (Bolivia, being one of the world's richest countries in biodiversity)."
"Cambodia is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and variability due to high dependence of its economy on climate-sensitive sectors, and low adaptive capacity of its populations. The country's agricultural production system is dependent on the annual flooding and recession of Tonle Sap Great Lake, and is therefore particularly sensitive to potential changes in local climate and monsoon regimes. Cambodia‘s 435 km coastline and large parts of the Mekong River flood plain could be severely affected by sea level rise. Projections based on an analysis of 14 General Circulation Models suggested that, under the high emissions scenario, the rainy season will start later, wet season rainfall will increase but dry season rainfall will decrease and that extreme weather events will become more frequent. These changes may lead to more intense flood pulses and adversely impact agriculture, infrastructure and floodplain vegetation as well as reduce the fertile land area suitable for agriculture."
"PPCR interventions will be sustained in the long-term by ensuring that climate change planning/management becomes an integral part of the national development planning process under Dominica’s Growth and Social Protection Strategy (GSPS) and Low Carbon Climate Resilient Development Strategy – the latter Strategy have been formulated under the SPCR planning process. In supporting the transition from government being solely responsible for climate change risk management to a country where this is a shared responsibility, SPCR interventions have to opportunity to demonstrate a model for transformation changes that could benefit other developing countries. Sustainability will be achieved by establishing effective partnerships with all stakeholders (public sector and civil society, technical and financial partners, local governments, vulnerable communities, grass-roots organizations) to transform Dominica to a low-carbon climate resilient country that will make a significant contribution to sustainable development in the country, and add value by ensuring that the SPCR is not a stand alone activity, but becomes a responsibility assumed by all stakeholders."
"Given Grenada’s vulnerability and limited capacity to adapt to climate change, its experience in dealing with natural disasters, and its commitment to mainstreaming climate change in its policies and planning, the country was nominated to participate in the PPCR. As a PPCR pilot country, Grenada is eligible to receive financial and technical assistance to support its efforts to build climate resilience. PPCR also provides the added value of assisting the Government of Grenada (GoG) to manage its climate change adaptation resources efficiently and comprehensively, avoiding duplication and enabling a platform for leveraging support from other international development partners and the cooperation of the private sector. The pilot program adopts a consultative process that involves all relevant stakeholders and facilitates an enabling environment for multi-lateral development Banks (MDBs) and bilateral donors to work together in close collaboration with the GoG both in designing and implementing interventions. Cumulatively, the PPCR will contribute to fostering sustainable outcomes in the medium to long term."
"The Strategic Programme for Climate Resilience (SPCR) under the Pilot Programme for Climate Resilience (PPCR) is one of the current initiatives which will assist in climateproofing the country’s development. The SPCR is aligned to Vision 2030 Jamaica, and also builds on gaps and challenges identified in Jamaica’s Second National Communication(SNC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The programme was developed with input from stakeholders at the national and local levels,and reflects some of the priority areas identified from consultations. The areas of focus are: Water Resources; Human Health; Agriculture and Food Security; Tourism; Terrestrial Resource and Biodiversity; Coastal Resources and Human Settlements; and Financial Resources."
"The Strategic Program for Climate Resilience (SPCR) for Mozambique integrates climate change budget support (to be delivered through a DPO), technical assistance for knowledge management, capacity-building and studies, and pilot investments in the following sectors:
- Transport: Design and management of unpaved roads.
- Urban: Upgrading infrastructure in coastal cities to cope with more extreme weather events.
- Hydrometeorology: Developing a hydro-meteorological system to reduce climate risk.
- Agriculture: Diversification of seeds, cropping and water harvesting techniques.
- Natural resources: Community-based approaches to watershed management.
- Private sector: Credit lines to encourage private investment in micro-irrigation and sustainable forest management."
"Nepal was recently ranked the 4th most climate vulnerable country in the world due to its extraordinary geography (climbing from just 60 m to over 8,800 m above sea level); a largely poor and resource dependent population; and weak institutional capacity to manage the range of climate challenges it will face. Current climate risks such as floods, droughts and landslides are deadly and endemic, while glacial lake outbursts floods pose increasing threats. Most climate projections for the region suggest that rainfall is likely to intensify and that extreme events will become even more frequent. Retreating glaciers and changes in seasonal snow fall and melt will lead to greater uncertainty about water flows and, in the long run, diminish water availability. Rising temperatures are also predicted, which will put additional pressure on water supplies and, particularly in the high altitudes, may alter vegetation patterns that could seriously affect livelihoods and habitats. Nepal's agriculture sector is highly rainfall dependent (only 17% of irrigable land receives irrigation water year round) and farmers are increasingly vulnerable to the uncertainties of climate-induced weather changes. Although a large part of Nepal‟s land area is forested, much of these forests are degraded and increasingly prone to forest fires. In terms of health, vector-borne diseases such as malaria are rampant in parts of the country, and anecdotal evidence suggests that patterns of disease incidence are shifting as temperatures change. The investments outlined in the SPCR will help Nepal to manage many of these development challenges."
"Niger’s climate is characterized by high variability especially in terms of rainfall. Over the past forty years, the country has experienced seven episodes of droughts whose effects on the agro-production, food security and socio-economic life have been dramatic. While on average food production meets 85% of domestic requirements, nearly half the population is estimated to suffer from chronic food insecurity, and in times of drought the country is heavily dependent on food aid, and there are outbreaks of famine. During the most recent drought in 2010, agricultural output fell 12% below average and malnutrition affected 32% of the population. Drought impacts are exacerbated by the extensive, "low-input", "low-output" agricultural and livestock practices, which leave soils exposed and vulnerable to erosion. Other climate-related hazards include floods, sandstorms and locust invasions. For Niger, improved climate resilience and improved food security go hand in hand."
Papua New Guinea
"The Papua New Guinea (PNG) Strategic Program for Climate Resilience (SPCR) will achieve ―transformational change by supporting implementation of PNG‘s national strategies, outlined in its Vision 2050, Development Strategy Plan (DSP), Medium Term Development Plan (MTDP), Public Investment Plan (PIP) and Climate Compatible Development Strategy (CCDS), to make PNG‘s development investments climate resilient, or to facilitate "climate compatible development" in PNG‘s own terms. The overall outcome of the SPCR will be the enhancement of PNG‘s resilience to climate change through improved access to resources, knowledge, and tools and climate resilient infrastructure at the national, sectoral, district, and community levels. These are prerequisites for effective social development, food security, and overall poverty reduction. PNG‘s SPCR will support achievement of these key pillars for climate resilient development. In seeking this transformation, the SPCR will address key impediments facing PNG‘s current efforts to implement Vision 2050, DSP, MTDP, PIP, and CCDS. These include:
- Inadequate resources (human, technical, financial) at national, provincial, district, community, and sectoral levels to mainstream climate change risk management;
- Inadequate knowledge and tools for mainstreaming climate change risk management in key sectors (food security, health, critical infrastructure); and
- Poorly designed infrastructure that is susceptible to climate change impacts."
"Saint Lucia's vulnerability to climate change is very high and increasing. Increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather and climate events, such as heavy rainfall, strong winds, drought and high sea temperatures and levels, are already occurring. These and other events have claimed lives, caused severe damage to infrastructure and other economic assets and caused adverse effects on livelihoods. Importantly, these changes and their adverse consequences are projected to escalate in the near and longer terms. It is against the background described above, that Saint Lucia is honoured to participate in the Pilot Programme for Climate Resilience (PPCR). The PPCR is designed to provide programmatic finance for climate resilient national development plans. The PPCR aims to provide transformational, catalytic and scaled-up support for both the development and implementation of such climate-related plans. Furthermore, its purpose is to provide lessons over the next few years that might be incorporated and replicated by countries, the development community and the future climate change regime, including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Adaptation Fund, and any other climate trust funds established by countries. This experience will be gained through scaled-up interventions covering the full range of sectors and sources of financing, and with sufficient resources to move quickly from planning to action. The PPCR will also create a platform to complement other ongoing development activities in other PPCR-pilot and non-pilot countries in the Caribbean region."
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
"As a Small Island Developing State (SIDS) with a high level of vulnerability to climate change, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (SVG) has been invited to participate in the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) as a pilot country under the Caribbean regional pilot program. Six countries are involved in the Caribbean pilot program, namely: Haiti, Jamaica, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. The objective of the PPCR is to provide incentives for scaled-up action and to support transformational change through the integration of climate risk and resilience into core development planning and the design of projects to build resilience to climate change. It also creates a platform to complement other ongoing development activities in pilot countries."
In its expression of interest, Samoa identified the following as some of the key objectives and priorities relating to climate resilience:
- to develop and implement immediate and urgent project based activities to adapt to climate change and climate variability;
- to protect life and livelihoods of the people, infrastructure and environment;
- to incorporate adaptation measures and goals into national and sectoral policies, and development goals; and
- to increase awareness of climate change impacts and adaptation activities in communities, civil society and government.
"Tajikistan is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change in Central Asia. The environmental legacy of the Soviet central planning, combined with a multitude of current problems, such as crumbling infrastructure, increasing feminisation of poverty and limited institutional capacity, threaten the sustainability of Tajikistan‘s economic, social and human development. Climate change will exacerbate existing problems and pose additional risks to the achievement of national development priorities. The Government of Tajikistan recognises that development as usual will not sufficiently address these emerging risks. We believe that the Pilot Programme for Climate Resilience (PPCR) offers a unique opportunity to shift from business as usual to a climate resilient development path by piloting approaches to integrate climate risks in development planning."
"This Kingdom of Tonga Strategic Program for Climate Resilience (SPCR) will support transformational change by enabling implementation of Tonga‘s national strategy to integrate climate change adaptation (CCA) and related disaster risk management (DRM), making Tonga more resilient to climate change and climate-related disasters. It will sustain the burgeoning transformational change that began with the development of Tonga`s Joint National Action Plan on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management 2010–2015 (JNAP) by providing the strategic human, technical, and financial inputs needed to implement JNAP activities, thereby supporting the Government‘s poverty alleviation goals. The SPCR is a package of closely linked, mutually supporting, and phased interventions that together provide the framework required to place Tonga on a climate-resilient development path at the national, island, and community levels in vulnerable economic sectors. The SPCR will:
- Build capacity;
- Provide information, tools, and legislative frameworks needed for informed climate change risk management; and
- Provide access to resources (technical, human, financial) to address the climate change risk management priorities of the Government, as well as those of vulnerable communities.
This will lead to a progressive increase in the resilience of ecosystems and infrastructure that are the foundations of the country‘s sustainable development aspirations. The SPCR will complement (not duplicate) major CCA and related DRM initiatives ongoing and planned in Tonga. It is based on a clear analysis of the value that can be added to CCA/DRM work in the country. The SPCR will catalyze increased collaboration in building resilience to climate change and disaster risk reduction (DRR) between ADB, the JNAP Secretariat, and Tonga infrastructure agencies (which implement the National Infrastructure Investment Plan) at the national level. It will in turn promote collaboration between Tonga SPCR national stakeholders and other Pacific countries and regional organizations. The enhanced collaboration achieved in development of this SPCR will further improve coordination and harmonization of national and regional CCA and DRM responses."
"The SPCR focuses on longer-term interventions aimed at enhancing climate resilience in Yemen. The SPCR cannot address all of the key risks that have been identified, but aims to address the highest priority risks identified during the preparation process and through consultation with vulnerable communities. Four interrelated SPCR investments are proposed, each addressing a key risk related to climate change:
- Climate Information System and PPCR Program Coordination
- Improving the Climate Resilience of the Water Sector
- Improving Rural Livelihood through Adaptation in Rain-fed Agriculture Project
- Climate-Resilient Integrated Coastal Zone Management"
"The PPCR is structured in two Phases. Phase 1 supports the preparation of a Strategic Programme for Climate Resilience (SPCR), by integrating climate resilience into priority development plans, budgets and investments. Phase 2 focuses on implementation of the SPCR – specifically programmatic support, investments in priority sectors and support to on-the-ground adaptation activities selected during Phase 1. In Zambia, the PPCR/SPCR is not considered a new programme, but rather an intrinsic part of the Government’s broader Climate Change Programme and its financing framework."