Neogene Ignimbrites Of The Nevsehir Plateau (Central Turkey)- Stratigraphy, Distribution And Source Constraints

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Journal Article: Neogene Ignimbrites Of The Nevsehir Plateau (Central Turkey)- Stratigraphy, Distribution And Source Constraints

In Anatolia (Turkey), extensive calc-alkaline volcanism has developed along discontinuous provinces from Neogene to Quaternary times as a consequence of plate convergence and continental collision. In the Nevsehir plateau, which is located in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, volcanism consists of numerous monogenetic centres, several large stratovolcanoes and an extensive, mainly Neogene, rhyolitic ignimbrite field. Vent and caldera locations for the Neogene ignimbrites were not well known based on previous studies. In the Neogene ignimbrite sequence of the Nevsehir plateau, we have identified an old group of ignimbrites (Kavak ignimbrites) followed by five major ignimbrite units (Zelve, Sarimaden Tepe, Cemilkoy, Gordeles, Kizilkaya) and two smaller, less extensive ones (Tahar, Sofular). Other ignimbrite units at the margin of the plateau occur as outliers of larger ignimbrites whose main distributions are beyond the plateau. Excellent exposure and physical continuity of the units over large areas have allowed establishment of the stratigraphic succession of the ignimbrites as, from bottom to top: Kavak, Zelve, Sarimaden Tepe, Cemilkoy, Tahar, Gordeles, Sofular, Kizilkaya. Our stratigraphic scheme refines previous ones by the identification of the Zelve ignimbrite and the correlation of the previously defined 'Akkoy' ignimbrite with the Sarimaden Tepe ignimbrite. Correlations of distant ignimbrite remnants have been achieved by using a combination a field criteria: (1) sedimentological characterisitics; (2) phenocryst assemblage; (3) pumice vesiculation texture; (4) presence and characteristics of associated plinian fallout deposits; and (5) lithic types. The correlations significantly enlarge the estimates of the original extent and volume of most ignimbrites: volumes range between 80 km3 and 300 km3 for the major ignimbrites, corresponding to 2500-10,000 km3 in areal extent. The major ignimbrites of the Nevsehir plateau have an inferred source area in the Derinkuyu tectonic basin which extends mainly between Nevsehir and the Melendiz Dag volcanic complex. The Kavak ignimbrites and the Zelve ignimbrite have inferred sources located between Nevsehir and Derinkuyu, coincident with a negative gravity anomaly. The younger ignimbrites (Sarimaden Tepe, Cemilkoy, Gordeles, Kizilkaya) have inferred sources clustered to the south between the Erdas Dag and the Melendiz Dag volcanic complex. We found evidence of collapse structures on the northern and southern flanks of the Erdas Dag volcanic massif, and of a large updoming structure in the Sahinkalesi Tepe massif. The present-day Derinkuyu tectonic basin is mostly covered with Quaternary sediments and volcanics. The fault system which bounds the basin to the east provides evidence that the ignimbrite volcanism and inferred caldera formation took place in a locally extensional environment while the basin was already subsiding. Drilling and geophysical prospecting are necessary to decipher in detail the presently unknown internal structure of the basin and the inferred, probably coalesced or nested, calderas within it.

J. L. Le Pennec, J. L. Bourdier, J. L. Froger, A. Temel, G. Camus and A. Gourgaud

Published Journal 
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 1994

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J. L. Le Pennec,J. L. Bourdier,J. L. Froger,A. Temel,G. Camus,A. Gourgaud. 1994. Neogene Ignimbrites Of The Nevsehir Plateau (Central Turkey)- Stratigraphy, Distribution And Source Constraints. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. (!) .