Magma Supply And Storage At Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, 1956-1983

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Journal Article: Magma Supply And Storage At Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, 1956-1983

Shallow crustal magma reservoirs beneath the summit of Kilauea Volcano and within its rift zones are linked in such a way that the magma supply to each can be estimated from the rate of ground deformation at the volcano's summit. Our model builds on the well-documented pattern of summit inflation as magma accumulates in a shallow summit reservoir, followed by deflation as magma is discharged to the surface or into the rift zones. Magma supply to the summit reservoir is thus proportional to summit uplift, and supply to the rift zones is proportional to summit subsidence; the average proportionality constant is 0.33 _ 106 m3/γrad. This model yields minimum supply estimates because it does not account for magma which escapes detection by moving passively through the summit reservoir or directly into the rift zones. Calculations suggest that magma was supplied to Kilauea during July 1956- April 1983 at a minimum average rate of 7.2 _ 106 m3/month. Roughly 35% of the net supply was extruded; the rest remains stored within the volcano's east rift zone (55%) and southwest rift zone (10%). Periods of relatively rapid supply were associated with the large Kapoho eruption in 1960 and the sustained Mauna Ulu eruptions in 1969-1971 and 1972-1974. Bursts of harmonic tremor from the mantle beneath Kilauea were also unusually energetic during 1968-1975, suggesting a close link between Kilauea's deep magma supply region and shallow storage reservoirs. It remains unclear whether pulses in magma supply from depth give rise to corresponding increases in shallow supply, or if instead unloading of a delicately balanced magma transport system during large eruptions or intrusions triggers more rapid ascent from a relatively constant mantle source.

Daniel Dzurisin, Robert Y. Koyanagi and Thomas T. English

Published Journal 
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 1984

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Daniel Dzurisin,Robert Y. Koyanagi,Thomas T. English. 1984. Magma Supply And Storage At Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, 1956-1983. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. (!) .