Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS)

From Open Energy Information

GAINS is an online tool for assessing transnational strategies that reduce emissions of multiple air pollutants and greenhouse gases at least costs, and minimize their negative effects on human health, ecosystems and climate change.

LEDSGP green logo.png
This tool is included in the Development Impacts Assessment (DIA) Toolkit from the LEDS Global Partnership.


GAINS estimates historic emissions of 10 air pollutants and 6 GHGs greenhouse gases for each country. Users can may pick from over 2,000 built in emission control methods or define custom parameters to model impacts. It assesses emissions in five-year intervals through the year 2050. GAINS provides estimates on ambient air quality and the subsequent impacts on human health and ecosystems, as well as greenhouse gas emission rates and the associated value per ton of CO2 equivalence. GAINS can be operated in two modes: scenario analysis or as an optimization tool. This tool can be applied in the following regions and country designations: Europe (for 48 countries); Asia (with separate implementations for China at the provincial level and India at the state level); and, UNFCCC Annex I countries.

When to Use This Tool

This tool is most useful for development impacts assessments focused on:

LEDS icon social blue.png


LEDS icon economic bw.png


LEDS icon environmental blue.png


Learn more about the topics for assessing the impacts of low-emission development strategies (LEDS).

Key Outputs

Human health damages, impacts on vegetation from ground level ozone, graphical display of emissions patterns and concentrations, health and environmental impacts, estimates of air quality, and the consequent impacts on human health and the environment

How to Use This Tool

Training Available
None provided; recommended training air pollution and economic modeling

Level of Expertise

Key Inputs

Base year, end year, gross domestic product, discount rate, population and base year data on energy consumption, transport, industry and agriculture.

Case Studies

Examples of how Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) has helped people assessing the impacts of low-emission development strategies in countries and regions:

GAINS is used for policy analyses under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP), e.g., for the revision of the Gothenburg Protocol, and by the European Commission for the EU Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution and the air policy review.

"Modeling Tool" is not in the list of possible values (Case Studies, Online Tools, Reports, Spreadsheet, Software, Guidebook/Manual) for this property.

"The GAINS model - in its present stage - quantifies for 43 regions in Europe the potentials and costs of reducing the six greenhouse gases"


  1.  "GAINS"