Geology Of Proximal, Small-Volume Trachyte-Trachyandesite Pyroclastic Flows And Associated Surge Deposits, Roccamonfina Volcano, Italy
Journal Article: Geology Of Proximal, Small-Volume Trachyte-Trachyandesite Pyroclastic Flows And Associated Surge Deposits, Roccamonfina Volcano, Italy
AbstractThis paper describes the 232 ka B.P. MTTT trachyte-trachyandesite pyroclastic succession of Roccamonfina volcano. This small-volume, proximal sequence crops out along Mulino di Sotto, Paratone, and Pisciariello ravines in the southwest sector of the central caldera, and covers a minimum extent of 3.5 km2 area. It is made up of seven pyroclastic flows and pyroclastic surge units consisting of trachytic ash matrix containing juvenile trachyandesitic scoria and dense lava fragments, pumice clasts of uncertain trachyandesite, and a foreign trachyandesitic lithic facies. Two stratigraphic markers allow correlation of the units. No paleosoils and Plinian fallout have been observed at the base and within the succession. Some lateral grading of scoria and lithic clasts suggests that MTTT derived from three distinct source vents. The sequence consists of a basal ash flow passing laterally to laminated surge deposits (Unit A). This is overlain by a reversely graded scoria and pumice lapilli flow (Unit B) which is in turn overlain by a thinly cross-stratified scoria lapilli surge (Unit C). Unit C is capped by a prominent ash-and-scoria flow (Unit D). A ground layer (Marker MK1) divides Unit D from a massive ignimbrite which grades upcurrent to sand-wave surge deposits (Unit E). Another ground layer (Marker MK2) separates Unit E from Unit F. This unit consists of a basal ignimbrite passing laterally to bedded surge deposits with convolute structures (subunit Fl), and grading upcurrent to a subhorizontally plane-laminated ash cloud (subunit F2) containing near the top a layer of millimetric lithic clasts embedded in fine ash. The succession is closed by the pyroclastic flow Unit G. Surge Unit C can be interpreted in terms of vertical gradients in turbulence, particle concentration, and velocity during flowage, whereas the bedded surge parts present in the massive deposits of Units A and E-F1 can be related to abrupt changes of velocity down the steep slopes of ravines. Reverse grading in Unit B is probably due to grain dispersive pressures. The convolute structures within Fl are related to zones of diagenetic cementation associated with groundwater. Finally, the laminated, fine-grained nature of subunit F2 is interpreted as due to ash clouds elutriated from the basal part of Unit F. Stratigraphic markers MK1-MK2 are ground layer breccias formed by settling of lithic and scoria clasts from overlying units E and F, respectively. Vesiculation and morphologies of glass shards of the MTTT succession suggest that eruptions were essentially driven by magmatic explosions which had an appreciable hydromagmatic component.
- Bernardino Giannetti
- Published Journal
- Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 1998
- Not Provided
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Bernardino Giannetti. 1998. Geology Of Proximal, Small-Volume Trachyte-Trachyandesite Pyroclastic Flows And Associated Surge Deposits, Roccamonfina Volcano, Italy. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. (!) .