Fluid Circulation At Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) From Self-Potential And Co2 Surveys

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Journal Article: Fluid Circulation At Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) From Self-Potential And Co2 Surveys

This work addresses the study of fluid circulation of the Stromboli island using a dense coverage of self-potential (SP) and soil CO2 data. A marked difference exists between the northern flank and the other flanks of the island. The northern flank exhibits (1) a typical negative SP/altitude gradient not observed on the other flanks, and (2) higher levels of CO2. The general SP pattern suggests that the northern flank is composed of porous layers through which vadose water flows down to a basal water table, in contrast to the other flanks where impermeable layers impede the vertical flow of vadose water. In the Sciara del Fuoco and Rina Grande-Le Schicciole landslide complexes, breccias of shallow gliding planes may constitute such impermeable layers whereas elsewhere, poorly permeable, fine-grained pyroclastites or altered lava flows may be present. This general model of the flanks also explains the main CO2 patterns: concentration of CO2 at the surface is high on the porous north flank and lower on the other flanks where impermeable layers can block the upward CO2 flux. The active upper part of the island is underlain by a well-defined hydrothermal system bounded by short-wavelength negative SP anomalies and high peaks of CO2. These boundaries coincide with faults limiting ancient collapses of calderas, craters and flank landslides. The hydrothermal system is not homogeneous but composed of three main subsystems and of a fourth minor one and is not centered on the active craters. The latter are located near its border. This divergence between the location of the active craters and the extent of the hydrothermal system suggests that the internal heat sources may not be limited to sources below the active craters. If the heat source strictly corresponds to intrusions at depth around the active conduits, the geometry of the hydrothermal subsystems must be strongly controlled by heterogeneities within the edifice such as craters, caldera walls or gliding planes of flank collapse, as suggested by the correspondence between SP-CO2 anomalies and structural limits. The inner zone of the hydrothermal subsystems is characterized by positive SP anomalies, indicating upward movements of fluids, and by very low values of CO2 emanation. This pattern suggests that the hydrothermal zone becomes self-sealed at depth, thus creating a barrier to the CO2 flux. In this hypothesis, the observed hydrothermal system is a shallow one and it involves mostly convection of infiltrated meteoric water above the sealed zone. Finally, on the base of CO2 degassing measurements, we present evidence for the presence of two regional faults, oriented N41° and N64°, and decoupled from the volcanic structures.

Anthony Finizola, Francesco Sortino, Jean-Francois Lenat and Mariano Valenza

Published Journal 
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 2002

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Anthony Finizola,Francesco Sortino,Jean-Francois Lenat,Mariano Valenza. 2002. Fluid Circulation At Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) From Self-Potential And Co2 Surveys. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. (!) .