Transmission Air Quality
Present, Potentially Affected
- Antelope Valley Neset (AVS - Neset 345 kV Transmission Line Project)
- BLM-NV-WN-ES-08-01-1310, NV-020-08-01 (Blue Mountain Geothermal Well Field and Power Plant EA)
- Barren Ridge Renewable Transmission (Barren Ridge Renewable Transmission Project Environmental Impact Statement)
- Big Eddy-Knight (Big Eddy-Knight Transmission Project Environmental Impact Statement)
- CA-96062042 (Fourmile Hill Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) / Environmental Impact Report (EIR) for Geothermal/Power Plant, Geothermal/Well Field, Geothermal/Transmission)
- Cameron to Milford-138kV Transmission Line (Cameron to Milford - 138kV Transmission Line Project)
- Central Ferry Lower Monumental (Central Ferry-Lower Monumental 500-kilovolt Transmission Line Project)
- DOE-EA-1621 (Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) Deep Geothermal Well and Power Plant Project EA at Klamath Falls Geothermal Area for Geothermal/Power Plant)
- DOE-EA-1733 (Calpine Enhanced Geothermal Systems Project EA at Geysers Geothermal Area for Geothermal/Well Field)
- DOE-EA-1759 (EA for Geothermal/Exploration at Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Project Naknek, Alaska)
- DOE-EA-1849 (EA for Northern Nevada Geothermal Power Plant Project at McGuinness Hills Geothermal Area)
- DOI-BLM-CA-017-05-051 (Basalt Canyon Geothermal Pipeline Project Environmental Assessment and Draft Environmental Impact Report for Geothermal/Well Field)
- DOI-BLM-CA-C050-2009-0005-EA (Engineered Geothermal Enhancement System Demonstration Project EA at Geysers Geothermal Area for Geothermal/Well Field)
- DOI-BLM-CA-EA-2002-??? (Glass Mountain Exploration Environmental Assessment/Initial Study for Geothermal/Well Field)
- DOI-BLM-CA-ES-2013-002+1793-EIS (Casa Diablo IV Geothermal Development Project EIS at Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area for Geothermal/Power Plant)
- DOI-BLM-ID-220-2009-EA-3709 (Raft River Geothermal Drilling Project EA for Geothermal/Exploration)
- DOI-BLM-NV-063-EA08-091 (Jersey Valley and Buffalo Valley Geothermal Development Projects EA for Geothermal/Power Plant)
- DOI-BLM-NV-B020-2011-0026-EA (Clayton Valley Geothermal Exploration Project EA for Drilling and Well Testing)
- DOI-BLM-NV-B020-2012-0214-EA (Silver Peak Area Geothermal Exploration Project EA for Drilling and Well Testing for Geothermal/Exploration)
- DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2010-0006-EA (Gabbs Valley and Dead Horse Wells Geothermal Exploration Projects EA for Geothermal/Exploration)
- DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2010-0010-EA (EA at Coyote Canyon and Dixie Meadows for Geothermal/Exploration Drilling and Well Testing)
- DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2011-0001-EA (Coyote Canyon Utilization Project EA for TGP for Geothermal/Power Plant)
- DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2011-0501-EA (EA for Development Drilling and Well Testing at Patua Geothermal Project Phase II for Geothermal/Well Field)
- DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2012-0051-EA (Coyote Canyon South Geothermal Exploration Project EA for Geothermal/Exploration)
- DOI-BLM-NV-CC-ES-11-10-1793 (Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects EIS for Geothermal/Power Plant Development Drilling)
- DOI-BLM-NV-CO10-2011-0501-EA (EA for Phase II Production Wells and Thermal Gradient Holes at Patua Geothermal Project for Geothermal/Well Field)
- DOI-BLM-NV-W010-2010-0004-EA (New York Canyon Geothermal Exploration Project EA for Exploration Drilling and Well Testing)
- DOI-BLM-NV-W010-2011-0001-EA (EA of the Leach Hot Springs Geothermal Exploration Project at Grass Valley Geothermal Area for Geothermal/Exploration, Geothermal/Well Field Drilling and Well Testing)
- DOI-BLM-NV-W010–2012–0005–EA (EA for Development Drilling at New York Canyon Geothermal Utilization and Interconnect Project for Geothermal/Power Plant, Geothermal/Transmission, Geothermal/Well Field)
- DOI-BLM-OR-P040-0021-EA (EA for Exploratory Wells at Midnight Point and Mahogany Geothermal Exploration Projects, Glass Buttes, Oregon for Geothermal/Exploration)
- DOI-BLM-OR-V040-2009-0059-EA (Department of Energy Loan Guarantee for U.S. Geothermal's Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Facility in Vale, Oregon for Geothermal/Power Plant)
- DOI-BLM-UT-C010-2010-0042-EA (EA of Cove Fort/Sulphurdale Geothermal Utilization Plan for Geothermal/Power Plant)
- DOI-BLM-UT-W020-2009-0028-EA (EA for Thermal Gradient Holes at Drum Mountain Exploration Project for Geothermal/Exploration)
- DOI-BLM-UT-W020-2010-0042-EA (EA for Thermal Gradient Holes at Drum Mountains and Whirlwind Valley Geothermal Exploration Projects for Geothermal/Exploration, Geothermal/Well Field)
- DOI-BLM-UT-W020-2010-042-EA (EA for Exploration and Development Drilling at Drum Mountain Geothermal Area for Geothermal/Exploration)
- Devers Palo Verde No 2 (EIS/EIR Devers-Palo Verde No. 2 500kV Transmission Line Project)
- EA for Well Field Development at Patua Geothermal Area - DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2011-00016-EA (EA for Phase II of Patua Geothermal Project for Geothermal/Exploration, Geothermal/Well Field)
- EA-NV-030-07-006 (EA for Exploration Drilling at Carson Lake Corral Geothermal Area for Geothermal/Well Field)
- Eldorado Ivanpah Transmission Project (EIS/EIR for the Eldorado-Ivanapah Transmission Project)
- Gateway West Transmission Line (Environmental Impact Statement for the Gateway West Transmission Line Project)
- Grand Coulee Transmission Line (Grand Coulee's Third Powerplant 500-kilovolt Transmission Line Replacement Project, Preliminary Environmental Assessment)
- LLNV-WO1000-2009-0002-EA (EA for Observation Wells at Jersey Valley II Geothermal Exploration Project)
- McNary-John Day (McNary-John Day Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement)
- Mona to Oquirrh Transmission (Mona to Oquirrh Transmission Corridor Project and Proposed Pony Express Resource Management Plan Amendment)
- NV-020-03-26 (Desert Peak 2 Geothermal Project Environmental Assessment for Geothermal/Power Plant)
- NV-020-07-EA-01 (EA for Observation Wells at Jersey Valley Geothermal Exploration Project for Geothermal/Well Field, Geothermal/Exploration)
- NV-063-EA06-098 (Reese River Valley Geothermal Exploration Project Environmental Assessment)
- NV-EA-030-07-05 (EA for Thermal Gradient Holes at Salt Wells for Geothermal/Exploration)
- One Nevada (Final Environmental Impact Statement for the One Nevada Transmission Line Project (ON Line Project))
- San Juan Basin EC (San Juan Basin Energy Connect Project Environmental Impact Statement)
- ... further results
The Clean Air Act requires:
- The EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for pollutants considered harmful to public health and the environment. 42 U.S.C. §7409(a). The EPA has set primary and secondary NAAQS for six principal pollutants, called “criteria” pollutants. These “criteria” pollutants include ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and lead.
- States to develop State Implementation Plans (SIPs) to attain and maintain the federally established NAAQS. 42 U.S.C. §7410. These plans are developed by state and local air quality management agencies and submitted to EPA for approval.
- The EPA to regulate emissions of toxic air pollutants from certain industrial sources, referred to as “source categories.” 42 U.S.C. §7412.
The EPA has set National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) for all major sources of air toxics. 42 U.S.C. §7412. States may set their own toxic air pollutant standards, however they may not fall short of the federal standards. 42 U.S.C. §7412(d)(7).
Air Quality Impacts & Mitigation
Transmission line construction causes minor impacts to air quality. Three impacts include fugitive dust from heavy machinery, and emissions from Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) or onsite vehicles. The following mitigation measures decrease transmission project impacts to air quality.
Fugitive dust or gravel grinding
- Develop a Fugitive Dust Abatement Plan
- Re-grade the dirt surface area and water down transportation areas.
- Enforce an on-site speed limit, and reduce idle times to maximize equipment usage times.
- Apply non-toxic soil stabilizers or hydro seed in areas of inactivity (10+ days).
- Submit a plan for approval to recycle or salvage non-hazardous construction and demolition debris where practicable.
- Use water sweepers to clean affected streets where soil material is piled.
- Cease operations when winds cause uncontrollable fugitive dust.
- Maintain all construction equipment and vehicles to comply with state and federal standards and reduce idle time to five minutes or less to decrease emissions.
- Use clean-burning on-road and off-road diesel engines. Vehicles manufactured after 1996 are preferred.
- During construction, operation, and maintenance, all vehicles will comply with applicable federal and state air quality regulations for tailpipe emissions.
- Purchase emission credits to offset any emissions levels over the emissions thresholds.
- Use diesel engines, motors and equipment as far as practicable from residential areas and other sensitive areas (i.e., schools, daycare centers, and hospitals) to mitigate short-term emission impacts.
- Use the proper size of equipment for the job and use alternative fuels when possible. Examples include: electric vehicles powered by solar, wind, or geothermal power.
- To avoid plumes, refrain from burning discharge at the construction site.
- Cover all trucks beds hauling soils or other loose materials, or maintain at least two feet of freeboard (distance between the material and the top of the truck).
- Consolidate staging areas and carpool during the construction phase to minimize driving distances and the number of cars between staging areas and construction sites.
- To decrease the delivery truck emissions and driving times, have all materials, including rock for road construction be delivered after peak traffic hours.
- To mitigate methylene chloride or paint fumes, ventilate the area before painting. Not all paint will pose long-term air quality threats. To best assess the situation, determine the duration, concentration, and chemical structure of the paint before citing it as a major source of air pollution.