Analytical Modeling At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (White & Peterson, 1991)
From Open Energy Information
Exploration Activity: Analytical Modeling At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (White & Peterson, 1991)
|Exploration Activity Details|
|Location||Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area|
|Exploration Technique||Analytical Modeling|
|Activity Date||1985 - 1988|
Sorey et al. (1991) integrated information from previous scientific and private industry investigations with new data obtained from fluid sampling, test drilling, and geological and geophysical studies conducted between 1985-1988 into a comprehensive conceptual model of the present-day hydrothermal flow system at Long Valley caldera. Lithology and temperature gradient data from wells drilled prior to 1988 are summarized in detail in the compilation, which includes information from numerous wells described in previous studies, and data from many of the wells are available online through the U.S. Geological Survey (Farrar et al., 2010). Thermal conductivity, XRD, and isotopic analyses of core cuttings from several of the wells discussed have been completed in several studies, and seem to prove useful in most cases (Flexser, 1991; Goff et al., 1991; Smith and Suemnicht, 1991). Results from these studies are also summarized in Sorey et al. (1991). Relevant data from chemical and isotopic studies published during the same year are also considered in the review.
"Recent drilling and sampling of hydrothermal fluids from Long Valley permit an accurate characterization of chemical concentrations and equilibrium conditions in the hydrothermal reservoir. Hydrothermal fluids are thermodynamically saturated with secondary quartz, calcite, and pyrite but are in disequilibrium with respect to aqueous sulfide-sulfate speciation. Hydrothermal fluids are enriched in 18O by approximately 1‰ relative to recharge waters. 18O and Cl concentrations in well cuttings and core from high-temperature zones of the reservoir are extensively depleted relative to fresh rhyolitic tuff compositions. Approximately 80% of the Li and 50% of the B are retained in the altered reservoir rock. Cl mass balance and open-system 18O fractionation models produce similar water-rock ratios of between 1.0 and 2.5 kg kg_1. These water-rock ratios coupled with estimates of reservoir porosity and density produce a minimum fluid residence time of 1.3 ka. The low fluid Cl concentrations in Long Valley correlate with corresponding low rock concentrations. Mass balance calculations indicate that leaching of these reservoir rocks accounts for Cl losses during hydrothermal activity over the last 40 ka."
- Art F. White, Maria L. Peterson (1991) Chemical equilibrium and mass balance relationships associated with the Long Valley hydrothermal system, California, U.S.A.