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  • "Geothermal exploration projects in the Gr
    "Geothermal exploration projects in the Great Basin (and adjacent areas) are described in the project list below, and may be viewed spatially in our Interactive Exploration Map. Although we try to verify data and include all projects, we cannot ensure their validity. See also the Nevada Geothermal Update from the Nevada Division of Minerals."
    ate from the Nevada Division of Minerals."  +
  • "The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) o
    "The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) offices of Policy and International Affairs (PI) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) held a meeting on January 11–12, 2011, to gather input on a proposed DOE research and development (R&D) program to address the technical barriers to cleaner and more fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves. The nearly 80 participants at the meeting evaluated DOE’s proposed goals, identified the major research challenges, and defined pathways toward technology solutions."
    ned pathways toward technology solutions."  +
  • "The knowledge platform Carbon Finance is a vehicle for exchanging information, capabilities and online services, serving as a meeting point for the various stakeholders in the carbon market in Latin America."  +
  • "This annual publication presents statistics and brief studies on transport along with tables on energy consumption for transport. Data covers Europe, Canada and the United States. This is a trilingual publication in English, French and Russian."  +
  • "This guide by CDKN aims to support national planners and policy makers in the green growth planning process by focusing on the key role of economics and economic tools."  +
  • "This is a short demonstration of three decision-support tools: GsT, HOMER, and JEDI. These tools can be used to make informed decisions regarding the application of renewable energy technologies."  +
  • "This report presents the results and conc
    "This report presents the results and conclusions of a research carried out by the JRC/IPTS analysing two demand-side measures that can help improving the environmental performance of cars: The first instrument, the feebate system, is a way to differentiate the registration tax according to the CO2 emissions from cars. The second instrument, the scrappage policy is intended to encourage the owners of old cars to scrap their car earlier. The potential and consequences of technical options to reduce car weight are also analysed. The report builds a comprehensive assessment of these policy options at EU level, covering all major environmental life cycle impacts and the different economic impacts. "
    acts and the different economic impacts. "  +
  • "This report provides utilities with recom
    "This report provides utilities with recommendations and examples of success stories aimed at informing the design of decision support tools, solutions and strategies for integrating more wind energy into their own power systems. The findings help to increase the industry-wide understanding of the operational impacts of wind integration and how wind power forecast is being used today. The identified practices from a broad group of utilities can be a foundation to fast-tracking the training of dispatchers. This report could also inform the formulation of regulatory policies for wind energy, as well as aid in the establishment of future operating procedures and practices for managing wind integration in the control room environment."
    egration in the control room environment."  +
  • '''RETScreen Expert''' is a comprehensive
    '''RETScreen Expert''' is a comprehensive '''Clean Energy Management Software''' platform which enables professionals and decision-makers to identify and assess the viability of potential energy efficiency, renewable energy and cogeneration projects; and to measure and verify the actual and ongoing energy performance of buildings, factories and power plants around the world. The software is developed by the Government of Canada in collaboration with notable international partners and is used by over '''650,000''' '''people''' in every country and territory of the world. RETScreen is also used as a teaching and research tool by well-over 1,200 universities and colleges worldwide, and is frequently cited in academic literature.
    s frequently cited in academic literature.  +
  • ''Hidden'' geothermal systems are systems
    ''Hidden'' geothermal systems are systems devoid of obvious surface hydrothermal manifestations. Emissions of moderate-to-low solubility gases may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. We investigate the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring below and above ground in the near-surface environment as an approach to exploration targeting hidden geothermal systems. We focus on CO2 because it is the dominant noncondensible gas species in most geothermal systems and has moderate solubility in water. We carried out numerical simulations of a CO2 migration scenario to calculate the magnitude of expected fluxes and concentrations. Our results show that CO2 concentrations can reach high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low geothermal source CO2 fluxes. However, once CO2 seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, winds are effective at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are predominantly controlled by CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, production by root respiration, microbial decomposition of soil/subsoil organic matter, groundwater degassing, and exchange with the atmosphere. Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in the near-surface environment include the infrared gas analyzer, the accumulation chamber method, the eddy covariance method, hyperspectral imaging, and light detection and ranging. To meet the challenge of detecting potentially small-magnitude geothermal CO2 emissions within the natural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach that integrates available detection and monitoring techniques with statistical analysis and modeling strategies. The proposed monitoring plan initially focuses on rapid, economical, reliable measurements of CO2 subsurface concentrations and surface fluxes and statistical analysis of the collected data. Based on this analysis, are as with a high probability of containing geothermal CO2 anomalies can be further sampled and analyzed using more expensive chemical and isotopic methods. Integrated analysis of all measurements will determine definitively if CO2 derived from a deep geothermal source is present, and if so, the spatial extent of the anomaly. The suitability of further geophysical measurements, installation of deep wells, and geochemical analyses of deep fluids can then be determined based on the results of the near surface CO2 monitoring
    results of the near surface CO2 monitoring  +
  • ''Hidden'' geothermal systems are those sy
    ''Hidden'' geothermal systems are those systems above which hydrothermal surface features (e.g., hot springs, fumaroles, elevated ground temperatures, hydrothermal alteration) are lacking. Emissions of moderate to low solubility gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, He) may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. Detection of anomalous gas emissions related to hidden geothermal systems may therefore be an important tool to discover new geothermal resources. This study investigates the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring in the subsurface and above ground in the near-surface environment to serve as a tool to discover hidden geothermal systems. We focus the investigation on CO2 due to (1) its abundance in geothermal systems, (2) its moderate solubility in water, and (3) the wide range of technologies available to monitor CO2 in the near-surface environment. However, monitoring in the near-surface environment for CO2 derived from hidden geothermal reservoirs is complicated by the large variation in CO2 fluxes and concentrations arising from natural biological and hydrologic processes. In the near-surface environment, the flow and transport of CO2 at high concentrations will be controlled by its high density, low viscosity, and high solubility in water relative to air. Numerical simulations of CO2 migration show that CO2 concentrations can reach very high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low geothermal source CO2 fluxes. However, once CO2 seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, surface winds are effective at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are primarily controlled by CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, production by root respiration, and microbial decomposition of soil/subsoil organic matter, groundwater degassing, and exchange with the atmosphere. Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in the near-surface environment include (1) the infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) for measurement of concentrations at point locations, (2) the accumulation chamber (AC) method for measuring soil CO2 fluxes at point locations, (3) the eddy covariance (EC) method for measuring net CO2 flux over a given area, (4) hyperspectral imaging of vegetative stress resulting from elevated CO2 concentrations, and (5) light detection and ranging (LIDAR) that can measure CO2 concentrations over an integrated path. Technologies currently in developmental stages that have the potential to be used for CO2 monitoring include tunable lasers for long distance integrated concentration measurements and micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) that can make widespread point measurements. To address the challenge of detecting potentially small-magnitude geothermal CO2 emissions within the natural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach that integrates available detection and monitoring methodologies with statistical analysis and modeling strategies. Within the area targeted for geothermal exploration, point measurements of soil CO2 fluxes and concentrations using the AC method and a portable IRGA, respectively, and measurements of net surface flux using EC should be made. Also, the natural spatial and temporal variability of surface CO2 fluxes and subsurface CO2 concentrations should be quantified within a background area with similar geologic, climatic, and ecosystem characteristics to the area targeted for geothermal exploration. Statistical analyses of data collected from both areas should be used to guide sampling strategy, discern spatial patterns that may be indicative of geothermal CO2 emissions, and assess the presence (or absence) of geothermal CO2 within the natural background variability with a desired confidence level. Once measured CO2 concentrations and fluxes have been determined to be of anomalous geothermal origin with high confidence, more expensive vertical subsurface gas sampling and chemical and isotopic analyses can be undertaken. Integrated analysis of all measurements will determine definitively if CO2 derived from a deep geothermal source is present, and if so, the spatial extent of the anomaly. The appropriateness of further geophysical measurements, installation of deep wells, and geochemical analyses of deep fluids can then be decided based on the results of the near surface CO2 monitoring
    results of the near surface CO2 monitoring  +
  • ''not available''  +
  • (BLM MOU WO300-2006-08; Forest Service Agr
    (BLM MOU WO300-2006-08; Forest Service Agreement No. 06-SU-11132428-051) The purpose of this MOU is to facilitate interagency coordination and establish policies and procedures to implement Section 225 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58 (hereinafter the “Act”). Section 225 requires the coordination of geothermal leasing and permitting on public lands and National Forest System (NFS) lands between the Secretary of the Interior and Secretary of Agriculture.
    the Interior and Secretary of Agriculture.  +
  • (This article is from the <u>Direct
    (This article is from the <u>Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook</u>.) A number of important exploration and reservoir production questions can be answered from studies of the chemistry of geothermal fluids and reservoir rocks, and so geochemistry plays a relatively important role in geothermal exploration and development (Henley and Ellis, 1983). Geochemical reconnaissance involves sampling and analyzing waters and gases from hot springs and other geothermal manifestations in the area under investigation. The data obtained are then used to help locate a geothermal system, to determine whether the geothermal system is hot-water or vapor-dominated, to estimate the minimum temperature expected at depth, to predict the homogeneity of the water supply, to infer the chemical character of the waters at depth, and to determine the source of recharge water. Geochemical principles can also be applied to interpretation of chemical data from producing wells and may yield information on formation of scale in pipes or a gradual chemical change in the geothermal fluids that could indicate an impending change in production temperature.
    mpending change in production temperature.  +
  • 10 C.F.R. § 50 (1956): Regulations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission providing for the licensing of production and utilization facilities.  +
  • 101A Power Meter Analyzer is suitable for measurements on electronically switched loads. Features voltage ranges 30 V, 100 V, 300 V, 600V; frequency range DC-50 kHz. Optional RS-232 connection to PC (XP and lower) and battery back-up.  +
  • 106A power analyzers are state of the art
    106A power analyzers are state of the art high performance power analyzers, single and three phase. Unlike other instruments at this price level the 106A Power Analyzer is designed to cope with the extreme signals generated on frequency inverter drivers. You don't have to worry about the signal wave forms. 106A Power Analyzer will always provide precise and reliable measurements. The large and very bright monitor lets you read the display values from a distance up to 4m.
    e display values from a distance up to 4m.  +
  • 107A High Speed Power Analyzer is an advan
    107A High Speed Power Analyzer is an advanced, multipurpose measurement tool designed for laboratory and field use, for production testing and quality control. High accuracy, wide frequency range, and high common mode rejection are prerequisites for precision measurements on inverters, light ballasts and ultrasonic transducers.
    light ballasts and ultrasonic transducers.  +
  • 136 coal samples from outcrops of the Plat
    136 coal samples from outcrops of the Plateau Molasse and Subalpine Molasse of Switzerland have been collected in order to determine their maturation level and to reconstruct the thermal history during the Cenozoic. Measured mean random vitrinite reflectance values (Rr) range from 0.21 % to 0.97 %. Mean average values increase with age, from 0.39% Rr for samples from the middle Miocene OSM to 0.53 % Rr for samples from the upper Oligocene USM, situated in the Plateau Molasse. Isoreflectance lines show a general increase in thermal maturity towards the Alpine front. Pronounced variations are found in the maturity values of the Plateau Molasse. Isoreflectance contours indicate that variations in thermal maturity might have a structural control. Areas of increased vitrinite reflectance occur near fault zones or lie parallel to a major topographic structure (Lake Zurich) which may be tectonically controlled. Thermal modelling of outcrop samples in the Plateau Molasse requires maximum paleotemperatures of about 40, 70, 90 and 110-degrees-C for measured vitrinite reflectance values of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 % respectively. These temperatures could have occurred in a hypothermal peripheral foreland basin, if eroded overburden thicknesses of up to 4 km are assumed. However, there is no geological evidence for this amount of burial and consecutive uplift/erosion during the Neogene, especially in the distal parts of the Molasse basin. Thermal modelling, taking into account convective heat transport, could explain in part the inferred paleotemperatures and the observed coalification patterns. Zones of increased thermal maturation may, therefore, be related to an increased regional discharge of warm groundwater controlled by tectonic structures.
    ndwater controlled by tectonic structures.  +
  • 14 CCR § 13053.5, current through August 5, 2014.  +
  • 14 CCR § 13054, current through August 5, 2014.  +
  • 14 CCR § 13096, current through August 5, 2014.  +
  • 14 CCR § 13300, current through August 5, 2014.  +
  • 14 CCR § 13315, current through August 5, 2014.  +
  • 14 CCR § 13333, current through August 5, 2014.  +
  • 14 CCR § 15063, current through July 9, 2014.  +
  • 15 CFR § 930, current through August 1, 2014.  +
  • 15 CFR § 930.31(a), current through August 5, 2014.  +
  • 16 U.S.C. § 1456, current through August 1, 2014.  +
  • 20 CCR § 1704, current through 2014.  +
  • 20 CCR § 1720, current through 2014.  +
  • 20 CCR § 1936, current through 2014.  +
  • 20 CCR § 2003, current through 2014.  +
  • 22 CCR § 66261.30, current through August 7, 2014.  +
  • 22 CCR § 66264.1, current through August, 7, 2014.  +
  • 22 CCR § 66270.1, current through August 7, 2014.  +
  • 22 CCR § 66270.10 - 22 CCR § 66270.29, current through August 7, 2014.  +
  • 22 CCR § 66270.69.2, current through August 7, 2014.  +
  • 22 CCR § 66271.1 - 66271.21, current through August 7, 2014.  +
  • 22 CCR § 67450.11, current through August 7, 2014.  +
  • 222Rn and 220Rn in geothermal steam at Wai
    222Rn and 220Rn in geothermal steam at Wairakei, NZ, range from 11 to 19 500 Bq kg-1, and 25 to 16 700 Bq kg-1, respectively, but do not cause toxic concentrations in air. The wide ranges are mainly due to differences in different physical conditions underground (e.g. thin silica diffusion barriers), not geochemical differences. Groundwater Rn from outside the area probably plays only a minor role. 210Po was found present in non-toxic levels in the steam. Historical records showed little change in Rn concentration over several decades, therefore potentially hazardous concentrations might be predicted from early exploration. 220Rn concentrations at Wairakei should decrease as the field becomes steam-dominated. Rock surfaces were variably leached or enriched with U, Th, Ra and 210Pb, providing a possible model for deposition in cooler regions near the field. Estimates of 222Rn permeability ranged from 2 to 77% of the maximum possible, with a median of 13%.
    he maximum possible, with a median of 13%.  +
  • 228 temperature measurements of 48 wells l
    228 temperature measurements of 48 wells located in the northern part of the Nile Delta were used for obtaining geothermal gradient values at each well. Considering thermal conductivity values for the rocks forming the stratigraphic section in the Nile Delta to range between 2-2.3 w/m°C heat flow values over this part of the country were found to range between 39 and 56 mw/m2. These values show the extension of the regional low heat flow that covers the Eastern Mediterranean area south to the northern parts of Egypt. Geothermal gradient values obtained at the 48 wells were used for compling maps of gradient variation over the study area. They were also used for calculating the depth at which 90°C and 150°C are expected. This range of temperature represents the probable liquid Hydrocarbon window, and depth and isopach maps for it are constructed. They show thicker window at Mit Ghamer, Tanta, Abu Qir, NAF, Tell El Ahmer, Wastani, and Qantara. These areas represent more potential areas if source rock is present. These results probably present additional informations for better assessment of oil and gas potentials of the Nile Delta.
    oil and gas potentials of the Nile Delta.  +
  • 23 CCR § 2235.2, current through August 14, 2014.  +
  • 2D and 3D modeling of the geothermal field
    2D and 3D modeling of the geothermal field was carried out along seven extended geotraverses in the Barents Sea compiled on the basis of CMP profiling and results of deep drilling. Depths of the zone characterized by catagenetic transformation of organic matter were calculated for different areas of the sedimentary basin. The minimal depth is confined to the South Barents Basin with the highest hydrocarbon resource potential established by geological exploration. In 3D models, this area is distinguished by a thermal dome recognized for the first time.
    hermal dome recognized for the first time.  +
  • 30 V.S.A. Section 248 Certificate of Public Good.  +
  • 3500 Series pressure transducers are compa
    3500 Series pressure transducers are compact, 316 stainless steel sesnors with a wide choice of electrical outputs as well as both electrical and pressure connections. The MMS sensor used in these transducers quickly reaches full accuracy at power-up, making this series excellent for remote, battery-powered installations, where power draw and time must be minimized. Ranges available from 0-250 psi (0 to 16 bar).
    es available from 0-250 psi (0 to 16 bar).  +
  • 3D Instruments’ Series 24 Accu-Drive pressure gauges are visual gauges with “Direct Drive Difference” Inconel helical bourdon tube system. Available in ranges from -30" Hg (Vacuum) to 10,000 PSI.  +
  • 3He/4He isotopic data suggests that low-te
    3He/4He isotopic data suggests that low-temperature geothermalsystems in the Central Alaskan Hot Springs Belt (CAHSB) areheated by a crustal heat source. The overall rate of circulation inCAHSB systems appears to be low, with minimum fluid residenceages of 170,000 years.Heat production from nearby Cretaceous to Tertiary ageplutons is anomalously high due to significant concentrations ofradioactive elements U, Th and K. High heat production in granitesmay be responsiblehfor local elevation of the geothermal gradientin hot springs areas. Small-scale fractures and faults provide thepermeable pathways for fluid circulation. Shear strain in a backarcfault-block-rotation setting is likely keeping those pathways open.Hence, CAHSB geothermal fluids have acquired their heat bydescending to relatively shallow crustal depths under conditionsof high geothermal gradient.
    der conditionsof high geothermal gradient.  +
  • 40 C.F.R. § 122.2, current through August 14, 2014.  +
  • 40 C.F.R. § 124.10, current through August 14, 2014.  +