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Property:BestPractices

From Open Energy Information

Property Name BestPractices
Property Type Text
Description List of best practices that could be applied while using this technique.

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H
Hyperspectral Imaging +  *Hyperspectral datasets are very large and cumbersome to work with (imagine 224 pieces of information—one for each band—stored for each pixel in an image). Data can be interpreted into maps so that the information can be shared in much more manageable datasets. Though many in the industry still appreciate the 7-band LANDSAT images (which can be made through data aggregation of hyperspectral images), there are four common types of maps that are created from hyperspectral data for use in geothermal exploration, including mineral maps, cultural maps, vegetation maps, and high-resolution photographs. *There are many commercial vendors that provide data products from calibrated radiance to surface reflectance to derived mineral maps. Since processing techniques vary widely in creating surface mineral maps it's a good practice for derived products to be reviewed by geologists for quality control.  +
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LiDAR +LiDAR data are very helpful for the expert in the 3D visualization of geothermal data for exploration and reservoir interpretation purposes. Managers and investors in hydrothermal exploration projects are more used to looking at bulls-eye type images that will tell them where a resource is located and where the best locations are to drill. This can be addressed by taking a particular mineral or mineral assemblage of interest and creating a mineral contour map.  +
Long-Wave Infrared +Typically, LWIR imaging as a hydrothermal exploration technique has been replaced by [[Hyperspectral Imaging]]  +
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Magnetotelluric Techniques +• Remote referencing techniques should be utilized to reduce the effects of local noise sources on MT data.<br><br> • A parallel sensor test should be performed at the beginning of the survey to QC the magnetometers, instrument channels ad verify all equipment appears to be functioning properly.<br><br> • Salt water and bentonite may be used during the electrode installation to reduce contact resistance at the electrode-soil interface.<br><br> • All wires and electrical connections should be carefully monitored for corrosion and replaced or re-spliced if corrosion exists.<br><br> • MT stations should be moved as far from cultural noise sources as possible while maintaining an even grid for the MT stations.<br><br> • Wires must be as close to the ground as possible for overnight recordings to reduce or prevent wind noise or animals tripping on the cables.<br><br> • Wires should be closely checked when picking up each station for chew marks or breaks in the wire from animals nibbling or chewing on the wires. <br><br> • If it is possible to view the time series in the field, it is recommended to run a brief test on the equipment and setup as a QC check prior to initiating the overnight recording.<br><br>  +
Mud Logging +Mud logging is standard practice during drilling operations and is important for documenting the geology that a well passes through. Preserving and storing the rock cuttings in an organized filing system is normal procedure.  +
Multispectral Imaging +Relative mineral determinations should always be verified in the field to ensure that distributions determined using multispectral data are accurate. Increasingly, multispectral imaging as a hydrothermal exploration technique has been replaced by [[Hyperspectral Imaging]].  +
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Near Infrared Surveys +Near infrared surveys are best conducted in conjunction with other electromagnetic bands during [[Multispectral Imaging|multispectral]] or [[Hyperspectral Imaging|hyperspectral imaging]] surveys.  +
Neutron Log +It is best to use neutron logging in addition to other logs to best determine the rock type and porosity. The use with gamma ray logging can reduce the possibility of potentially mistaking a shale as a high porosity zone since shales have a different gamma ray signal than sandstones.  +
P
Paleomagnetic Measurements +It is best to collect core samples from outcrops and exposed layers of rocks such as road cuts, where multiple layers can be easily accessed.  +
Passive Sensors +Many geothermal areas are in remote areas which are difficult to access so passive remote sensing methods can be extremely valuable for gathering initial information about an area at low cost and low impact to the environment.  +
Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) +Identification of an unknown requires a small amount of sample material, a device for grinding the sample, and a sample holder. Approximately 15 mg of pure sample is ground into a powder (<150 micron grain size or 100-mesh) in the field prior to analysis. Additional sample preparation details are included in the Field Procedures section of this page (above).  +
Pressure Temperature Log +Allowing the well to reach equilibrium with the surrounding formation is going to provide the most accurate reservoir temperature (Blackwell, et al., 2010).  +
Production Wells +Firm evidence from multiple exploration techniques is very important when deciding where to drill production wells. A solid reservoir model should be in place when deciding on the best drilling locations.  +
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Radiometrics +<br> * Because this techniques maps surface feature, it is important to have a solid understanding of surface processes (e.g. weathering) and the interaction of these processes with bedrock.  +
Reflection Survey +See [[Active Seismic Techniques]]  +
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Single-Well and Cross-Well Resistivity +-In the oil and gas industry downhole resistivity data is often analyzed in conjunction with [[Acoustic Logs]]. -This type of logging must be done before well casing is installed or beneath the last well casing. Measurements will be unreliable through well casing.  +
Step-out Well +A step-out well should be drilled where there is some evidence of a permeable formation linked with the main reservoir. The well should be drilled in a location to where if it is an unsuccessful production well it might still be useful as an injection well.  +
Stereo Satellite Imagery +Clear skies are needed to obtain optical images for stereo satellite images. Optical images must be collected during daytime.  +
Stress Test +Stress tests normally begin with imaging of the borehole walls for analysis of fracture patterns and indications of stress zones. After a visual analysis hydraulic fracturing is conducted and the borehole walls should be imaged again to analyze how the well responded and determine any zones where permanent permeability might be established.  +
Surface Gas Sampling +Surface gas sampling is best carried out by a qualified hydrologist, geologist, or geochemist familiar with current sampling standards. A practical understanding of how different surface features relate to hydrothermal processes within the geothermal system is also ideal for the purposes of data interpretation, application of various chemical and isotopic [[Geothermometry|geothermometers]], and [[Modeling-Computer Simulations|geochemical modeling]] of the reservoir.  +
Surface Water Sampling +Surface water sampling is best carried out by a qualified hydrologist, geologist, or geochemist familiar with current sampling standards. A practical understanding of how different surface features relate to hydrothermal processes within the geothermal system is also ideal for the purposes of data interpretation, application of various chemical and isotopic [[Geothermometry|geothermometers]], and [[Modeling-Computer Simulations|geochemical modeling]] of the reservoir.  +
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Telluric Survey +• Non-polarizing electrodes are the preferred electrode type to reduce noise and distortion to the measurements.  +
W
Water Sampling +Surface and downhole water sampling are fundamental tools in geothermal exploration, and are typically subjected to [[Compound and Elemental Analysis|chemical]] and [[Isotopic Analysis- Fluid|isotopic]] analyses in order to characterize hydrothermal systems and allow for estimation of reservoir temperatures through the application of various chemical [[Geothermometry|geothermometers]]. Data from these analyses can also provide useful information regarding the source of thermal fluids and help to constrain the age of the hydrothermal system.  +
Well Deepening +A well that is going to be deepened should have a large enough diameter required for the new well parameters needed; widening a well would not be practical. Reasons for why the existing well was abandoned should be known before trying to deepen it because there may be lost equipment or collapses down hole that would make deepening it extremely difficult.  +
Well Testing Techniques +Well tests are normally conducted upon completion of drilling, but before removal of the drill rig so that the drill rig pump can be used for some of the tests.  +