Surface fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum are typically used to provide surface boundary conditions for time-dependent atmospheric simulations with large-eddy simulations. Some investigations have suggested that using a time series of surface temperature provides better agreement with observations (Kumar et al. 2010).
Surface fluxes are typically quantified as rate at which a given physical quantity reaches or leaves the ground.
/m^2, where the units in `` reflect the physical quantity of interest (e.g. Watts, etc.)