Bathymetric And Geochemical Investigation Of Kawah Ijen Crater Lake, East Java, Indonesia

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Journal Article: Bathymetric And Geochemical Investigation Of Kawah Ijen Crater Lake, East Java, Indonesia

A bathymetric survey of Kawah Ijen crater lake was conducted by acoustic sounding in 1996 to compare the lake morphology with those measured in 1922, 1925 and 1938, and to calculate the present lake volume. Even though the lake experienced several hydrothermal eruptions, the maximum depth became shallower (182 m) than before (200 m), resulting in a reduced lake volume (3.0_107 m3). Fifty-two major and minor constituents including rare earth elements and polythionates (PT) of the lake waters at various depths were determined by ICP-AES, ICP-MS and HPLC, respectively. These ions except for several volatile elements are taken up by lake fringe through congruent dissolution of pyroclastics of Kawah Ijen volcano. Most ions are homogeneously distributed throughout the lake, although PT showed a considerable vertical variation. Rare earth elements (REE) in the Kawah Ijen water as well as those from other hyper-acidic crater lakes show distribution patterns likely due to the three rock dissolution (preferential, congruent and residual) types, and their logarithmic concentrations linearly depend upon the pH values of the lake waters. Using the PT degradation kinetics data, production rates of PT, injection rates of SO2 and H2S into the lake were estimated to be 114, 86 and 30 tons/day, respectively. Also travel time of the spring water at the Banyupahit Riverhead from Kawah Ijen was estimated to be 600-1000 days through the consideration of decreasing rates of PT. Molten sulfur stocks containing Sn, Cu, Bi sulfides and Pb-barite exposed on the inner crater slope were presumed to be extinct molten sulfur pools at the former lake bottom. This was strongly supported by the barite precipitation temperature estimated through the consideration of the temperature dependence of Pb-chlorocomplex formation.

B. Takano, K. Suzuki, K. Sugimori, T. Ohba, S. M. Fazlullin, A. Bernard, S. Sumarti, R. Sukhyar and M. Hirabayashi

Published Journal 
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 2004

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B. Takano,K. Suzuki,K. Sugimori,T. Ohba,S. M. Fazlullin,A. Bernard,S. Sumarti,R. Sukhyar,M. Hirabayashi. 2004. Bathymetric And Geochemical Investigation Of Kawah Ijen Crater Lake, East Java, Indonesia. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. (!) .