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The data gathered here are for informational purposes only. Inclusion of a report in the database does not represent approval of the estimates by DOE or NREL. Levelized cost calculations DO NOT represent real world market conditions. The calculation uses a single discount rate in order to compare technology costs only.

About the Cost Database

For emerging energy technologies, a variety of cost and performance numbers are cited in presentations and reports for present-day characteristics and potential improvements. Amid a variety of sources and methods for these data, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s technology development programs determine estimates for use in program planning.

The Transparent Cost Database collects program cost and performance estimates for EERE technologies in a public forum where they can be viewed and compared to other published estimates. The database includes literature on technology cost and performance estimates (both current and future projections) for vehicles, biofuels, and electricity generation. All data are downloadable for full transparency.

This project is under active development and we welcome user suggestions for additional features or modifications to enhance usability for the energy community. The database also allows nomination of data sets for inclusion in the database or comments on the estimates used by interested users.

Database fields - generation

Data dictionary as of April 4th, 2012.

Field machine nameField nameField description
guid guid Used by database
title title Used by database
Official Program Number is_official_est Indicates if row is program estimate. 1 indicates is program estimate.
TechnologyID Technologyid unique id from db
Dataset_name DatasetName Name of study
Year Year Year of study
Data_vintage_year DataVintageYear
Technology Technology Type of technology
Technology_Subtype TechnologySubtype Technology subtype
Fuel Fuel Fuel type
PV_material PvMaterial Type of photovoltaic material
PV_axis PvAxis PV axis - Fixed, 1 axis or 2 axis
CSP_storage_hours CspStorageHours CSP - number of hours of storage at full capacity
CSP_cooling_system CspCoolingSystem Wet block or Dry block
Market_type MktTypeComResUtility Indicates Market type. eg. commercial, residential, utility
Resource_Quality_1 ResourceQuality1 Resource quality for renewable energy - describes wind and solar by class
Resource_Quality_2 ResourceQuality2 Secondary resource characterization. Currently used only for onshore and offshore wind
Capacity_MW CapacityMw Capacity in megawatts
Installed_Capacity_MW InstalledCapacityMW Installed capacity in megawatts
PV_Current_AC_or_DC PvCurrentAcOrDc Photovoltaic current is either AC or DC
Overnight_Capital_Cost_dollar_per_kW OnghtCptlCostDolPerKw Overnight capital cost dollar per kilowatt
Contingency_Factor ContingencyFactor Multiplication factor to original overnight capital cost allow for contingency
Overnight_Capital_Cost_dollar_per_kW_including_Contingency OnghCptCstDlKwInclCtng Overnight capital cost dollar per kilowatt including contingency
Learning_Factor LearningFactor Reduction in capital due to learning - will generally be less than 1.0
Technology_Optimism TechnologyOptimism
Metals_Metal_Products_PPI MetalsMetalProductsPpi Metals index
Variable_O_M_dollar_per_MWh VariableOMDolPerMwh Variable operating and maintenance costs dollars per megawatts
Fixed_O_M_dollar_per_kW FixedOMDolPerKw Fixed operating and maintenance costs dollar per kilowatts
O_M_All-Inclusive OMAllInclusive All inclusive operating and maintenance costs.
Leadtime_years Leadtimeyears Number of years required to build - check if includes planning
Lifetime_Years LifetimeYears Asset life
Heat_Rate HeatRate Heat rate.
Thermal_Efficiency ThermalEfficiency Thermal efficiency
Storage_Efficiency StorageEfficiency Storage efficiency
Avg_Capacity_Factor AvgCapacityFactor Average capacity factor
Min_Capacity_Factor MinCapacityFactor Mininum capactiy factor
Max_Capacity_Factor MaxCapacityFactor Maximum capacity factor
Availability_Factor AvailabilityFactor Percentage of time capacity is available e.g. not unavailable due to planned or unplanned outtages
CO2_Metric_Tons_Per_MWh Co2MetricTonsPerMwh how much CO2 generated in metric tons per megawatt hours
Dataset_type2 DtstTypMdlMktEngnrgPgm Dataset type. Values: Engineering, Field Data, Market Analysis, Model, Program
Modeling_version MdlingVerCaseOrScnario Modeling version
Dataset_web_source DatasetWebSource Web source of study
Dollar_Year DolYear Year in which dollar price is given
Materials_costs_assumptions MtrlsCostsAssumptions Assumptions for material costs.
Labor_costs_assumptions LaborCostsAssumptions Assumptions for laber costs.
Type_of_incentives_included TypeOfIncentivesIncld Type of incentives included
Data_Type DataType Data type.
Data_publication_year DataPublicationYear Year data published
VariableOMDolPerMwhNote Notes for Variable OM field
PvMaterialNote Notes for PV Materials field.
GeneralCapacityFactorNote Notes for Capacity Factor fields.
DataVintageYearNote Notes for Data Vintage Year field.
DatasetNameNote Notes for Dataset Name field.
OnghCptCstDlKwInclCtngNote Notes for Overnight Capital Cost field.
FuelNote Notes for Fuel field.
GeneralOMNote Notes for all OM (Operating and maintenance) fields
HeatRateNote Notes for Heat Rate field.
GeneralCostsNote Notes for cost fields.
GeneralHeatRateEffNote Notes for efficiency fields.
TechnologyNote Notes for technology field.
GeneralNote Notes about the study
AvgCapacityFactorNote Notes about the Average capacity factor field.
OnghtCptlCostDolPerKwNote Notes for overnight capital cost field.
Final_Capital_Cost_dollar_per_kW FinalCptlCostDolPerKw Final capital costs dollar per kilowatt
Final_Lifetime_Years FinalLifetimeYears Uses lifetime specified or uses 30 years if blank
Final_Heat_Rate FinalHeatRate Uses heat rate specified or used default heat rate for technology if blank
Final_Capacity_Factor FinalCapacityFactor Uses capacity factors specified or uses default capacity factor for technology if bank
PV_of_Depreciation PvOfDepreciation PV of depreciation - varies by technology
Capital_Recovery_Factor CapitalRecoveryFactor Capital recovery factor - varies by technology
Fuel Cost FuelCost Cost of fuel. Used in LCOE calculation
LCOE_7%_Discount_Rate_39.2%_Tax_Rate LCOE Calculated Levelized Cost Of Energy value


Database fields - fuels

Data dictionary as of January 17th, 2012.

Field machine nameField nameField description
guid Field used by database.
title Field used by database.
is_official_est Official Program Number indicates if used as program estimate.
report_author Summary of Biofuels Production Cost Estimates Who created the report.
report_name Andy Aden, NREL Report name.
report_source Updated 6/07/2011 Source of report.
FuelsGeneralComments RESULTS Comments about the report.
report_year Year of publication Year report published.
generalfueltype Fuel type.
tech_type General Technology Pathway Technology type.
yearsdollars years dollars ($) The year dollar values are assumed.
yearsdollarnote years dollars ($) note Notes on years dollars($) field.
capital_cost capital ($/gal) Capital cost in dollars per gallon.
operating_cost O&M, Including Taxes ($/gal) Operations and maintenance costs including taxes in dollars per gallon.
coprodcreditdlgal Coproduct Credit ($/gal) Coproduct Credit ($/gal)
feedstock_cost Feedstock cost ($/gal) Cost of feedstock dollars per gallon.
TotalDolGal Total ($/gal) Total cost dollars per gallon.
TotalDolGalNote Total ($/gal) note Notes for Total ($/gal) field.
gge Total ($/gge) Total dollars per gallon gas equivalent. Sum of the costs as calculated.
TypeOfCostAnlys Type of Cost Analysis Cost analysis type
Fdstck Feedstock Feedstock type.
DlvrFstkCst Delivered Feedstock Costs Cost of delivered feedstock.
DlvrFstkCstUnit Delivered Feedstock Costs unit Unit type for Delivered feedstock costs. Eg. $/dry short ton or $/ton CO2
BmasFdrtDryMtrcTnPrDy Biomass Feedrate (dry metric tonnes per day) Biomass Feedrate dry metric tonnes per day
ScaleMmGalYr Scale (MM gal/yr) Plant scale. How much produces in million gallons per year.
TtlFlYldGlFlDryShtTnBm total fuel yield (gal fuel/ dry short ton biomass) Total fuel yield in gal fuel/ dry short ton biomass units
GenTmfrmYrCnstrctnStrt General Timeframe (year construction start) General timeframe construction started.
Notes on General timeframe construction started field.
TechnologyNotes Technology notes Notes on the technology.
Coproducts Coproducts Coproducts from manufacturing
CnstrctnStrtupTmeYrs Construction and startup time (years) Number of years Construction and startup time.
OnlineCapctyFactorPrct Online / capacity factor (%) Percentage online capacity factor
DiscountRatePrctIrr Discount rate (%) / IRR Discount rate to Internal Rate of Return
TaxRatePrct Tax rate (%) Percent tax rate.
Depreciation Depreciation Depreciation
PrctDebt % debt Percent debt
PrctEquity % equity Percent equity
LoanRatePeriodPrctYrs Loan rate / period (%, years) Loan rate / period (%, years)
PlntLifeAnlysPeriodYrs Plant life / analysis period (years) Years for plant life / analysis period.
CostEscltnRatePrctAnnl Cost Escalation rate (% annual) Percent annual cost escalation rate.
TotalCapitalCostDol Total Capital Cost ($) Total Capital Cost
IncludeCoprodCredit Field to indicate if coproduct credit should be used in LCOF calculation. 1=use it. 0=don't use it.

Database fields - vehicles

Data dictionary as of March 13th, 2012.

Field machine nameField nameField description
guid Field used by database
title Field used by database
SourceDocument Source Document - Study name
YearPublished Year Published Year study was published
Source Source Unique source label identifier
OrigSrcsCited Original Sources Cited, if any Original sources cited within report or elsewhere
GeneralComments General Comments Comments about the study
Scenario Scenario Scenario description given in report
ScenarioLabel Scenario - Label Conservative,Moderate, Optimistic, Mod to Optimistic, Not specified, Actual
ScenarioPercentile Scenario - Percentile (only if stated) Scenario percentile if stated
VhclTypeGeneral Vehicle Type - General Vehicle type - report description rather than label
VhclTypeLabel Vehicle Type - Label Type of vehicle. Valid values: Conventional Gasoline, Conventional Diesel, Gasoline Hybrid, Diesel Hybrid, PHEV, Battery, Fuel Cell, Advanced Gasoline, Natural Gas
VhclSizeLabel Vehicle Size - Label Size of vehicle. Valid values: Midside, SUV, Compact, Pick up, Not specified
BuildYear Build Year Year built.
CurrencyType Currency type for dollar values.
ConversionRateUsed Conversion Rate Used in US dollar columns.
TtlVhclCstRtlMsrpDlEur Total Vehicle Cost (Retail or MSRP) ($ or Euros) Total Vehicle Cost (Retail or MSRP) ($ or Euros)
TtlVhclCstRtlMsrpUsd Total vehicle cost in US dollars
VhclCstRtlMsrpDlEur Vehicle Cost (Retail or MSRP) ($ or Euros) Vehicle Cost (Retail or MSRP) ($ or Euros)
VhclCstRtlMsrpUsd Vehicle Cost in US dollars.
VhclPrcIcrmtlRtlMsrp Vehicle Price (Incremental) (Retail or MSRP)$ or Euros Vehicle Price (Incremental) (Retail or MSRP)$ or Euros
VhclPrcIcrmtlRtlMsrpUsd Vehicle Price in US dollars.
MppngVehPriceIcrmntl Mapping - Vehicle Price (Incremental) ($ or Euros) Incremental cost to base price
VhclCstManufactDlEur Vehicle Cost (Manufact) $ or Euros Vehicle Cost (Manufact) $ or Euros
VhclCstManufactUsd Vehicle Cost in US dollars.
VhclPrcIcrmtlManuDlEur Vehicle Price (Incremental) (Manu)$ or Euros Vehicle Price (Incremental) (Manu)$ or Euros
VhclPrcIcrmtlManuUsd Vehicle incremental price in US dollars.
ConstantDlYear Constant $(year) Constant year dollars assumption
CumSalesFiguresK Cum Sales Figures (K) Cumulative sales figures
CumSalesFiguresKUsd Cumlative sales figures in US dollars.
EstmtdVhclManufCst estimated vehicle manuf cost (some raw data, some estimated) $ Estimated vehicle manufacturing cost (some raw data, some estimated) in US dollars
CalculatedMpgg Calculated mpgg - Not raw data Calculated miles per gallon gasoline
FuelEffcncyOnRoad Fuel Efficiency (On Road) On road Fuel Efficiency
FuelEffcncyOnRoadUnits Fuel Efficiency (On Road) Units On road Fuel Efficiency Units. Valid values: gal/100 miles, mpgge, litres/100km, MJ/km, kWh/km
FuelEfncyOnRoadDrvCycl Fuel Efficiency (On Road) Drive Cycle On road Fuel Efficiency Drive Cycle
FuelUseMjKm Fuel Use (MJ/km) Fuel use in Mega-Joules/kilometers
FuelType Fuel Type Type of fuel used by vehicle. Valid values: Gasoline, Diesel, Gas & Elec, Diesel & Elec, Electricity, Hydrogen, H2 & Elec, Ethanol Flex Fuel, Natural gas, Propane
NonElectOnlyMode Non-Elect Only Mode Mpgge - Non electric mode only
ElctrcityOnlyMode Electricity Only Mode Mpgge - Electric mode only
FuelUplift Fuel Uplift Mpgge uplift of base mileage (>1.0)
ElctrcityUplift Electricity uplift Mpgge uplift of base mileage - for electric only mode (>1.0)
BattryOnlyRngNomMiles Battery only range (Nom) (miles) Battery only range - nominal
BattryOnlyRngMiles Battery only range (miles) Range in miles battery only
SeriesOrParallelDrvtrn Series or Parallel Drivetrain Indicates if drivetrain is series or parallel.
DiscountRateReal Discount Rate (real) Discount rate
AssetLifeYrs Asset Life (Yrs) Asset life in years.
AnnualKmTravelled Annual km travelled Annual kilometers traveled
PowerTrainCstDl Power Train Cost ($) Power Train Cost
PowerTrainCstDlUsd Power train cost in US dollars.
BattryCstDlKwhNmplate Battery Cost ($/kWh) - Nameplate Battery cost nameplate in dollar per kilowatt hour.
BattryCstDlKwhNmplateUsd Battery cost nameplate in US dollars.
BattryCstDlKwh Battery cost ($/kWh) Battery cost in dollars per kilowatt hour.
BattryCstDlKwhUsd Battery cost per killowatt hour in US dollars.
BattryPowerKw Battery Power (kW) Batter power in kilowatt hours
BattryEnrgyKwhNmPlate Battery Energy (KWh) Name Plate Battery energy (kWh) nameplate
BattryEnrgyKwh Battery Energy (kWh) Battery Energy (kWh)
Soc SOC State of charge
BattryCycleLifeOverSoc Battery Cycle Life over SOC Battery life over SOC
BattryLifetimeYears Battery Lifetime (years) Battery life in years.
BattryTech Battery Tech Battery technology.
BattryCstDl Battery Cost ($) Battery cost.
BattryCstDlUsd Battery Cost in US dollars.
BattryWeightKg Battery Weight (kg) Weight of batter in kilograms.
EnginePowerKw Engine Power (kW) Engine power in kilowatts
EngineWeightKg Engine Weight (kg)) Weight of engine in kilograms.
EngineCstDl Engine Cost ($) Cost of engine.
EngineCstDlUsd Cost of engine in US dollars.
MotorPowerKw Motor Power (kW) Motor power in kilowatts
MotorWeightKg Motor Weight (kg) Weight of motor in kilograms.
MotorCstDl Motor Cost ($) Cost of motor.
MotorCstDlUsd Motor cost in US dollars.
FuelCellLifetimeYears Fuel Cell Lifetime (years) Number of years of life of fuel cell.
FuelCellTech Fuel Cell Tech Fuel cell technology.
FuelCellWeightKg Fuel Cell Weight (kg) Weight of fuel cell in kilograms.
FuelCellCstDl Fuel Cell Cost ($) Cost of fuel cell.
FuelCellCstDlUsd Cost of fuel cell in US dollars.
FuelCellCstDlKw Fuel Cell Cost ($/kW) Cost of Fuel cell ($/kW)
FuelCellCstDlKwUsd Cost of fuel cell per kilowatt in US dollars.
FuelCellPowerKw Fuel Cell Power (kW) Fuel cell power in kilowatts.
HyrdgnStorageCstDl Hydrogen Storage Cost ($) Hydrogen storage costs.
HyrdgnStorageCstDlUsd Hydrogen storage costs in US dollars.
HybridizationRatio Hybridization Ratio Ratio of hybridization.
WeightKg Weight (kg) Weight of vehicle in kilograms.
Acceration060MphS Acceration (0-60 mph (s)) Acceleration from 0-60 miles per hour in seconds.
PowerHorsepower Power (horsepower) Horsepower
PowerRpm Power (RPM) Power in revolutions per minute
InfrstrcPerVhclHyrdgn Infrastruc per vehicle for Hydrogen Incremental infrastructure cost per hydrogen vehicle
InfrstrcPerVhclElctrc Infrastruc per vehicle for Electric Incremental infrastructure cost per electric vehicle
CstOfCharger Cost of charger Cost of charger
CstOfChargerUsd Cost of charger in US dollars.
BattryEffcncy Battery Efficiency Battery Efficiency
VhclTypeGeneralNote Vehicle Type - General Note Notes for Vehicle type-general field.
VhclTypeLabelNote Vehicle Type - Label Note Notes for Vehicle Type - Label field.
FuelEffcncyOnRoadNote Fuel Efficiency (On Road) Note Notes for Fuel Efficiency (On Road) field.
EngineCstDlNote Engine Cost ($) Note Notes for Engine Cost ($) field.
WeightKgNote Weight (kg) Note Notes for Weight (kg) field.
FuelEffcncyOnRoadUnitsNote Fuel Efficiency (On Road) Units Note Notes for Fuel Efficiency (On Road) Units field.
AnnualKmTravelledNote Annual km travelled Note Notes for Annual km travelled field.
BattryLifetimeYearsNote Battery Lifetime (years) Note Notes for Battery Lifetime (years) field.
BattryOnlyRngNomMilesNote Battery only range (Nom) (miles) Note Notes for Battery only range (Nom) (miles) field.
SeriesOrParallelDrvtrnNote Series or Parallel Drivetrain Note Notes for Series or Parallel Drivetrain field.
DiscountRateRealNote Discount Rate (real) Note Notes for Discount Rate (real) field.
InfrstrcPerVhclHyrdgnNote Infrastruc per vehicle for Hydrogen Note Notes for Infrastruc per vehicle for Hydrogen field.
CumSalesFiguresKNote Cum Sales Figures (K) Note Notes for Cum Sales Figures (K) field.
BattryCstDlNote Battery Cost ($) Note Notes for Battery Cost ($) field.
VhclCstRtlMsrpDlEurNote Vehicle Cost (Retail or MSRP) ($ or Euros) Note Notes for Vehicle Cost (Retail or MSRP) ($ or Euros) field.
BattryTechNote Battery Tech Note Notes for Battery Tech field.
BattryEnrgyKwhNote Battery Energy (kWh) Note Notes for Battery Energy (kWh) field.
FuelCellCstDlNote Fuel Cell Cost ($) Note Notes for Fuel Cell Cost ($) field.
VhclPrcIcrmtlRtlMsrpNote Vehicle Price (Incremental) (Retail or MSRP)$ or Euros Note Notes for Vehicle Price (Incremental) (Retail or MSRP)$ or Euros field.
VhclPrcIcrmtlManuDlEurNote Vehicle Price (Incremental) (Manu)$ or Euros Note Notes for Vehicle Price (Incremental) (Manu)$ or Euros field.
Is_official_est Indicates if is program estimate.
LCOD calculation Calculated levelized cost of driving.
PHEV only for calculation purpose, value copied into LCOD column
VehiclesSourceURI Source URI
VehiclesSourceDescription Vehicles Source Description


Read the disclaimer regarding levelized costs.

Usage Help

Data Display Modes

Historical: shows past estimates of costs. Displays estimates from reports within the filters that make estimates for the past or for the current year.

Projections: shows estimates of future costs and technology characteristics. A single technology must be selected for clarity of data (showing all data would make graphs unreadable).

(Planned) Retrospective: Will compare the projections of older historical sources to allow the user to compare with current cost estimates (similar to ‘projections’ mode but for past and current years).

Levelizing Modes

The levelizing mode is displayed above the chart. You can easily change the mode by selecting the one you would like to use in calculating the levelized cost. The formulas are the same regardless of the selected mode. What changes are the parameters used in the calculations. You can view the parameter values by expanding the Levelizing Parameters section on the left. As you can see, many of the parameters are technology specific.

To view the calculation used, see Levelized Cost Calculations in the navigation menu on the left.

The available modes are:

  • Normalized - uses the same parameter values regardless of the technology used. For example, all discount rates are 7%; both Onshore Wind and Offshore Wind have a discount rate of 7%.
  • Market - uses technology specific parameter values. For example, the discount rate of Onshore Wind is 5.7% while the discount rate for Offshore Wind is 8.1%.
  • User - this allows you to set all the parameters used in the calculation. By default, you will start with the normalized values, but all can be changed for each technology.

Graphical methods

Box and whisker: This method shows a data distribution without making any assumption about the underlying relationship between the data (unlike, for example, a mean and standard deviation which assumes an underlying Gaussian). It shows the data distribution using five numbers: The minimum, lowest 25%, median, highest 25%, and maximum point. Where fewer than three points are available for a column, individual data points are shown and not a box and whisker chart.

Scatter: This method simply shows all data points. Mouse over or click a point of interest for more information.

Program Estimates: The numbers used by the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in program planning. For more information, see how does DOE make these estimates and more information.


The database visualization interface allows a user to filter the database to focus on data of interest.

Implemented Filters

Year Published filters based on the year the document was published. By default, all reports are used (2007 - 2015).

Estimate Year filters values for the year they pertain to. For example, our example report is published in 2012 and has data values for years 2010, 2015, 2020, etc. By limiting the Estimate Year to a range of 2008 to 2018, only values for 2010 and 2015 will be displayed. Then if you also limit the Year Published to 2008 to 2011, then none the values from this example report will be displayed. By default, all data is display (2000 – 2054).

Planned Filters

Filter by type of report (model input, market report, engineering estimate)
Filter by generation of plant (fuels) (first of kind or nth plant)

More information

I am looking for…

Cost of energy information

The method of levelizing energy costs is based primarily on:
Short, W., Packey, D.J., and Holt, T. “A Manual for the Economic Evaluation of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technologies” (1995)

for a simple LCOE calculator:

Site- or project-specific information

NREL has developed the following cost of energy tools:

    • System Advisor Model (SAM):
SAM makes performance predictions and cost of energy estimates for grid-connected power projects based on installation and operating costs and system design parameters that you specify as inputs to the model. The target audience is Project managers, engineers, incentive program designers, technology developers, and researchers

The Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST) is an economic cash flow model designed to enable PUCs and the renewable energy community assess projects, design cost-based incentives (e.g., feed-in tariffs), and evaluate the impact of tax incentives or other support structures. CREST is a suite of three analytic tools, for solar (photovoltaic and solar thermal), wind, and geothermal technologies, respectively. The target audience is state and local stakeholders involved in policy and rate analysis.


NREL's PVWatts calculator determines the energy production and cost savings of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) energy systems throughout the world. It allows homeowners, installers, manufacturers, and researchers to easily develop estimates of the performance of hypothetical PV installations.

Job and economic impacts of renewable projects:
The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local and state levels. First developed by NREL's Wind Powering America program to model wind energy impacts, JEDI has been expanded to analyze concentrating solar power, photovoltaics, marine and hydrokinetic power, biofuels, coal and natural gas power plants.

Renewable project finance:

Geographic and resource information

Other energy analysis information

Technology details

Models and tools for all of the above:

Vehicle simulation for DOE estimates was performed by Argonne National Lab using the Autonomie tool: (general tool) (latest report with fuel consumption and cost values)

DOE program planning details:

Technology cost information for other technologies:

Carbon intensity of technologies:

For a summary of some estimates of the impacts of greenhouse gas emissions, see:

  • The International Panel on Climate Change’s Assessment report at IPPC
  • And a review by Richard Tol at Annual Reviews

For a summary of the health impacts of energy, see:

  • Hidden Costs of Energy by the National Academies: click here

For a summary of the water use impacts of energy, see:

  • NREL Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies: click here

Recommended Citation for the TCDB

"Transparent Cost Database." (YEAR). Open Energy Information (en). Accessed MONTH DAY, YEAR:”